What varieties of gooseberries and currants will delight the owners of garden plots with the harvest Due to the environmentally deteriorating situation, the human body loses its immunity to various types of diseases. This is especially noticeable in the spring, when the body runs out of vitamins, macro- and microelements. These problems can be solved by eating natural vitamins, represented by freshly picked fruits and berries, the season of which begins in summer.
Among berry crops, gooseberries and currants are among the vitamins, which are probably grown by every gardener in their summer cottage. Currant berries are useful due to the high content of ascorbic acid, vitamins A, E, PP and group B. Eating its fruits helps to increase immunity, especially to such a disease as influenza. Vitamin A prevents premature aging of the body. Due to its beneficial properties, currants occupy a leading place not only in the garden, but also in industrial areas of the country.
Gooseberry berries contain not only the above vitamins, but also elements such as iron, phosphorus, calcium, iodine, etc. Thanks to this, eating its fruits improves the functions of the gastrointestinal tract and prevents the appearance of cancer cells in the body. Despite this, the bulk of the gooseberry plantations is located mainly in personal plots.
In VNIIS them. I.V. Michurina purposeful work on the collection and study of collections of currants and gooseberries, as well as on the creation of new promising varieties, has been going on for over 50 years. The main contribution to the study and creation of gooseberry varieties belongs to Ekaterina Yurievna Koveshnikova, who also pays great attention to technological issues and issues of culture reproduction. As a result of many years of research, she conducted the selection of varieties for home gardening and for the establishment of industrial plantations. So for planting in summer cottages, the varieties Krasnoslavyansky, Salut, Plum, Souvenir are recommended, which will provide high yields in combination with good quality fruits.
When establishing industrial plantations, an important point is to reduce labor costs. This is achieved not only by selecting the optimal varieties that require minimal maintenance, but also by working out agrotechnical issues, and in particular, by planting varieties suitable for machine harvesting. For this purpose, the following varieties are recommended: Kazachok, Malachite, Russian, Serenada, Sirius, Yubileiny, Chernomor, etc.
Gooseberries are planted in lighted, weed-free areas with fertile soils. In the central part of Russia, autumn planting with two-year-old seedlings is preferable. In summer cottages, plants are placed at a distance of 2-3 m from each other, often along fences. Industrial cultivation of a crop assumes a distance in a row of 3 m, and between plants 0.7-1 m. The measures for the care of this crop include watering, weeding and loosening of near-trunk circles, as well as removing dry and damaged branches.
Now many Russian gardeners prefer to plant on their plots not only high-yielding varieties, but also varieties that are decorative. For this, our institute proposes to plant standard gooseberry forms obtained by grafting varietal material on golden currants, which are used as a stock. Vaccination can be carried out both in the winter, storing the planting material in the basement (winter grafting), and in the spring, in the growing areas. It should be borne in mind that when cultivating standard forms, it is imperative to provide them with supports (pegs, twigs), the absence of which leads to damage, fracture of plants, especially during the fruiting period. Despite the fact that golden currants are capable of producing weak root shoots, when grafting gooseberries onto it, it is imperative to remove the resulting shoots.
Gooseberry is one of the early-growing crops. Already 3-4 years after planting, it is capable of producing an industrial crop. Harvesting of its berries can be carried out at their incomplete maturity, which will ensure good transportability. Berries are suitable not only for fresh consumption, but also for freezing, processing into compotes, preserves, jams, etc.
Brought out GNU VNIIS them. Michurin. A variety of medium ripening. The bush is medium-sized, spreading. Slightly curved shoots, medium spine. Leaves are bright green, strongly dissected. Berries with an average weight of 3.5 g of dark plum color, sweet and sour taste. Average yield 3.5 kg per bush. Resistant to low temperatures and spheroteca.
Bred at the Leningrad Fruit and Vegetable Experimental Station. A variety of medium early ripening. The bush is medium-sized, slightly spreading, of medium density. The spine of the shoots is average. Berries with an average weight of 3.9 g of dark red color, dessert taste. Resistant to low temperatures and spheroteca.
Brought out GNU VNIIS them. The bush is vigorous, spreading. Spiny shoots. The leaves are large, dark green. Berries with an average weight of 4 g of bright green color. Average yield 4 kg per bush. Resistant to low temperatures and spheroteca.
Brought out GNU VNIIS them. Medium late ripening variety. The bush is medium-sized, slightly spreading. Shoots are medium spine. Leaves are bright green, slightly leathery. Berries with an average weight of 4 g are dark red in color. Average yield 3.1 kg per bush. Resistant to low temperatures and spheroteca.
Brought out GNU VNIIS them. Late ripening variety. Shoots are practically thornless. Leaves are medium, light green. Berries with an average weight of 4.5 g of violet-red color. Average yield 3.6 kg per bush. Resistant to low temperatures, in some years it is damaged by spheroteca.
Brought out GNU VNIIS them. The bush is medium-sized, upright. Berries with an average weight of 3.6 g of dark red color. Average yield 3 kg per bush. Resistant to low temperatures, weakly resistant to spheroteca.
Brought out GNU VNIIS them. Medium early ripening. The bush is vigorous, compact. The shoots are strongly thorny. Berries with an average weight of 5 g of dark red color. Resistant to low temperatures and spheroteca.
Brought out GNU VNIIS them. Medium late ripening. The bush is vigorous, slightly spreading. Slightly spiny shoots. Berries with an average weight of 3 g are almost black in color. Average yield 3.9 kg per bush. Resistant to low temperatures and spheroteca.
Brought out GNU VNIIS them. The bush is medium-sized, compact. Berries with an average weight of 4 g are bright yellow in color. Resistant to low temperatures and relatively resistant to spheroteca.
For gardeners of the North-West region, from the named varieties of gooseberries, the varieties Russian, Krasnoslavyansky, Malachite, Plum, Kazachok are suitable.
Description of the varieties was prepared based on the materials of E.Yu. Koveshnikova. - Recommendations for the assortment of berry and non-traditional horticultural crops for the conditions of the Tambov region.
To be continued
Dmitry Bryksin, Researcher of the Department of Berry Crops GNU VNIIS them. Michurina, candidate of agricultural sciences, member of ANIIR, member of the All-Union Society of Geneticists and Breeders
Photo by the author
The development of gardening in the North, as I.V. Michurin, is possible only under conditions of strict breed-varietal zoning and the development of special agrotechnical methods that best meet the conditions of the region. It is well known that in order to maintain normal health and performance, each person needs about 250 g of fruit per day. At the same time, their beneficial effect will be much higher if the menu includes not only apples, but also fruits of other crops - cherries, plums, strawberries, currants, sea buckthorn, mountain ash, cranberries, etc. (Ezhov, 1992).
At the end of the 19th century, the famous Russian fruit growers V.V. Pashkevich, N.I. Kichunov, and later such prominent scientists as P.G. Schitt, Z.A. Metlitsky, P.F. Dibrova and others. When carrying out zoning of horticultural crops, the frost hazard of the territory plays an important role (Kashin, 1995). The northeastern region, which includes the Kirov region, is one of the most frost-prone regions in Russia. The cultivation of apples, cherries, plums, pears in the northern regions is limited, and berry farms give high yields only if the varieties are correctly selected. One of the ways to solve the problem of providing the population with vitamins is the transition to an adaptive strategy in gardening. At the same time, a special place is occupied by the problem of increasing the resistance of fruit and berry crops to low-temperature stress, which is the main obstacle in the "northwarding" of gardening in Russia. Many intensive varieties of horticultural crops, which have played an important role in increasing yields in recent decades, are able to realize their high productivity potential only in favorable environmental conditions. Of particular interest in the adaptive introduction of fruit and berry plants are species and ecotypes, whose structures and organs are capable of reparation and regeneration after being damaged by temperature stresses (Zhuchenko, 1996).
The development of adaptive gardening provides for new ideas about the creation and selection of varieties. They must, first of all, be ecologically adapted, that is, have sufficient winter hardiness, productivity and resistance to pests and diseases. In addition, to have high commercial and consumer qualities of fruits in order to reliably compete with foreign varieties (Sedov, Ogoltsova, 1998).
The introduction of wild plant species into the culture plays a positive role in solving the problem of providing the inhabitants of the northern regions with vitamins. Even I.V. Michurin set the task: "To transform some wild plants, cold-resistant, bearing annually, high-yielding. Into edible, highly cultivated" (Collected works, vol. 1, p. 602). In addition, the North, as pointed out by N.I. Vavilov, is extremely favorable for the development of berry growing. The founder of medicinal gardening in the Urals, Professor L.I. Vigorov rightly set the task of turning a modern garden into a place where they not only feast on fruits, but also receive funds that prevent various diseases.
A fairly strict confinement of chemical compounds to the fruits of certain crops has been revealed, except for two very universal compounds - vitamin C and P - active substances that jointly protect the circulatory system, prevent or eliminate high blood pressure and scurvy. So, vitamin E, which prevents muscle dystrophy, a violation of the production of sex hormones and normalizes the absorption of fats, is concentrated in significant quantities only in sea buckthorn. A very deficient vitamin B2, associated with the normalization of the nervous system and the elimination of carcinogenic substances from the body, is present in significant quantities only in the plum. Vitamin B9, which normalizes hematopoiesis and prevents some forms of leukemia, is found in strawberries, raspberries, cherries, and grapes. Thus, fruits and berries represent a powerful arsenal of protective substances for humans (Vigorov, 1991).
Testing a large set of crops makes it possible to identify the leading varieties for zoning in a given soil and climatic zone, which makes it possible to establish productive and cost-effective plantations (Trunov, 1981).
During the reform years (1992-1998) the horticultural sector has experienced a number of significant changes.
The well-functioning, well-functioning structure represented by the Plodoprom of the RSFSR, which included 600 specialized horticultural farms and nurseries, was completely disbanded. As a result, farms found themselves without centralized management and state financial support. The decline in the industry is also explained by the fact that the market is still focused not on the production of the necessary cheap fruits and berries, but on meeting the needs of those who have the opportunity to buy expensive imported fruits. Therefore, it turns out that the wealthy part of the population (5.7%) consumes fruit all year round (150.200 kg per person, which is equal to the indicator of advanced countries), while the poorest part (60.70%) of Russia is almost 70 times less (2.3 kg). On average, per capita fruit production in Russia fell to 16 kg, which is five times less than the physiologically necessary norm for their consumption (Kashin, Kosyakin, 1998).
Until 1990in Russia they rightly believed that the basis of commercial gardening was the public sector, but at the same time they did not refuse the services of the population in the production of fruits and berries. In recent years, the development of amateur gardening in Russia has acquired an unprecedented scale. In the difficult conditions of modern life, it becomes the main source of high-vitamin food for the urban population (Ilyin, 1995).
Taking into account the emerging trend of an ever increasing transition of gardening, especially northern, to amateur rails, when carrying out zoning of varieties, it is important to take into account the interests of amateur gardeners and small farms, where, unlike large commercial production, the quality, taste, timing of receipt and aesthetics of the product come to the fore ... At the same time, pesticide-free varieties and technologies are especially in demand (Zhuchenko, 1996).
In this regard, the main task of this study was to collect and study varieties of berry crops bred in various regions of Russia and neighboring countries, in order to select the best ones for commercial and amateur gardening of the Kirov region. In the period from 1984 to 1999, 233 varieties of berry crops bred in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, Western Europe and America were collected and studied.
The main attention in this work was paid to the issues of adaptability of crops and varieties to the specific soil and climatic conditions of the North-East of the European part of Russia. In this regard, the influence of the temperature factor on plants, the phenological rhythm of varieties of berry crops, as well as their productivity and quality of fruits were studied.
For the first time for the North-Eastern region of Russia, the need for 233 varieties of currants, gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries, sea buckthorn in the accumulation of heat during the growing season has been determined. On the basis of long-term observations for all studied varieties, the coefficients of adaptability and resistance of fruiting were calculated, which make it possible to predict the distribution of varieties in the region.
According to the results of research, winter-hardy, sufficiently productive, adaptive varieties of black currant Seedling Golubki, Nestor Kozin, Plotnokistnaya, Grape, Heiress, Belorusskaya Sweet, Glebovskaya, Dubrovskaya, Dochka, Krasa Altai , Red currant odzhebin Firstborn of white currant Yuterbog gooseberry Krasnoslaviansky, Kolobok, Hinnonmaki strain 14 raspberries Bryanskaya, Nagrada, Samara dense sea buckthorn Chuiskaya, Golden Siberia, Botanical, Botanical amateur, Pepper's hybrid. The assortment of promising varieties of berry crops for amateur gardeners of the region has been significantly expanded. eight
Based on the results of this study, the most urgent problems of the selection of berry crops in the North-East of the Non-Black Earth Zone of Russia have been identified and new source material has been identified for their successful solution.
The sources for the selection of berry crops in the North-East of the European part of Russia have been identified for such characteristics as the yield and vitamin content of black currant dessert of red currant and raspberry resistance to powdery mildew of black currant and gooseberry large-fruited and low permeability of sea buckthorn shoots winter hardiness, cold resistance, drought resistance and resistance to gray garden strawberry rot.
WHITE SPOT OF LEAVES
Otherwise, the disease is called septoria, which affects currants, gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries, vegetables.
Symptoms of the disease: small angular or rounded spots with a diameter of 2-3 mm appear on the leaves. At first, the spots are brown, then they turn white in the center and only their border remains brown. Spores of the fungus ripen in the spots, with which it spreads in summer. In cases of severe damage to currants and gooseberries with septoria, the leaves may fall off. Red currants are less affected by this disease than black ones.
Control measures. In gardens heavily infected with septoria, bushes and soil are abundantly sprayed with nitrafen (200 g per 10 l), or copper sulfate (50 g per 5 l of water), or 3% Bordeaux liquid (400 g of lime, 300 g of copper sulfate - 10 liters of water). An effective and strong solution of urea - 500 g per 10 liters of water.
Spraying is carried out in early spring, before bud break, as they can "burn out". Therefore, such treatments can be carried out even in warm winter "windows" at a temperature of at least 5 ° C heat.
If you missed the moment, then during the budding period, garden crops are treated with Bordeaux liquid (100 g per 10 liters of water). You can also use captan, chomycin, cuprozan, phthalan, colloidal sulfur.
It is necessary to remove all fallen leaves under the currant and gooseberry bushes (this is where the spores of the fungus winter) and dig up the soil in the near-stem circle (late autumn or early spring).
Septoria spreads especially strongly with thickened plantings. Prevent the spread of weeds on the site.
When young shoots reach 20-30 cm, as well as before flowering and after picking berries, they are re-treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid (100 g per 10 liters). It can be treated with urea at a concentration of 50 g per 10 liters of water before flowering.
BROWN SPOT OF LEAVES, OR CHURCOSPOROSIS
In the middle of summer, brown spots of irregular shape with a dark gray center and a thin lighter rim are formed on currant leaves. The spots increase, merge, on the surface of the tissues on both sides there is a delicate brownish bloom of summer sporulation. Affected leaves dry out and fall off.
Control measures. The same as against septoria.
The first signs of the disease appear at the end of flowering currants, the peak falls in July-August. Leaves, petioles, young shoots and even berries are affected. Initially, small light isolated spots with glossy sporulation tubercles appear. Then the spots coalesce, forming very large areas of the affected tissue. During the summer, several generations of the fungus with a large number of spores develop on the leaves. On the petioles and young shoots, anthracnose appears in the form of small gray-brown sores, and small gray scabs can form on the berries. The growth of shoots of the affected bushes is greatly slowed down, and premature leaf litter is noted. The mushroom hibernates on fallen leaves.
Control measures. The same as against septoria.
ALTERNARIOSIS, OR BLACK SPOT OF THE LEAVES OF THE GOSEBERRY
The pathogen fungus infects leaves, shoots, berries. Large grayish-black spots appear on the leaves, then they grow, stretching along the edge of the leaf blade. By autumn, the affected tissues are covered with a rich velvety black-olive bloom of fungal sporulation. Leaves dry up and fall off prematurely. On shoots and berries, brown spots of an oblong shape with abundant olive bloom also appear.
Control measures. Early spring spraying of bushes with copper sulfate (50 g per 5 l of water) or 1% Bordeaux mixture before flowering, immediately after flowering and after harvesting.
The causative fungus hibernates on sedges, and in the spring spores infect berry fields. In late May - early June, prominent bright yellow spots appear on the leaves and petioles on the upper side. On them, on the underside of the leaf blade, spore-containing goblet-shaped formations are formed (hence the name of this disease). The affected leaves and berries fall off by the middle of summer, so the signs of the disease disappear. Disease of berry plants with rust is promoted by their placement in lowlands where sedges grow.
Control measures. Mowing sedges in spring and autumn. Spraying the bushes with 1% Bordeaux mixture during the leafing period, in the bud separation phase and immediately after flowering.
The fungus-pathogen overwinters in the branches of Weymouth pine, Siberian cedar, causing the formation of elongated tumors in the affected areas. Spores are formed on them, which in the spring infect the berries. In the middle of summer, yellow brown spots appear on the upper side of the leaves, on which numerous bright orange sporulation pads develop on the lower side. With severe damage, the leaves turn brown, dry out and fall off prematurely.
Control measures. Deep digging of soil with fallen leaves. Spraying berries with 1% Bordeaux mixture twice during the season: immediately after flowering and after harvesting.
WHITE, BROWN AND BROWN SPOTS OF STRAWBERRY
These fungal diseases affect strawberries with high soil and air humidity in summer and especially in autumn, when the fruit buds of the future harvest are laid. Strawberries are most often affected by white and brown spots. With white spot disease, rounded spots appear on the leaves, at first a reddish-brown color, and later whitish, with a dark red rim. Aging leaves usually get sick with this spot.
When damaged by brown spot, dark purple merging spots of various sizes appear on the leaves. Small black pads with fungal spores appear on the upper side of the spots. With the growth of spots, the leaves begin to turn brown and fall off. With severe damage, there is a massive drying and death of leaves, which can seriously affect the next year's harvest.
Fungi-causative agents of diseases overwinter on the affected leaves. In spring, fungal spores infect new, healthy leaves. During the summer, several generations of the fungus develop, the spores of which infect the newly formed leaves.
Control measures. Collect and destroy dry and severely affected green leaves. Avoid thickening of strawberries, remove unnecessary mustache in a timely manner. Observe the crop rotation, growing strawberries in one place for no more than 5 years. Mow and remove the strawberry leaves from the plot immediately after the end of the harvest.
In case of severe damage to these diseases, three times spraying with 1% Bordeaux liquid or copper oxychloride (30-40 g per 10 l of water) is carried out: the first - at the moment of exposing the buds, the second - 10 days after the first and the third - immediately after harvesting.
In the most severe cases, it is recommended to spray the plants with a solution of sulfuric acid after picking the berries. In this case, all the leaves of the strawberry die, and the roots are preserved. By autumn, completely healthy leaves grow.
When carrying out the prevention and treatment of plants, remember that you cannot spray fruit trees and berry bushes during flowering, as pollinating insects may die, which will lead to loss of yield.
1. CURRENT STATE OF THE QUESTION ABOUT THE WAYS OF REPRODUCTION OF RED CURRANT AND UTERINE PLANTS.
1.1. Propagation by lignified cuttings.
1.2. Propagation by combined cuttings.
1.3 Propagation by green cuttings.
2. LOCATION, CONDITIONS, METHODS AND OBJECTS OF RESEARCH.
2.1 Location of research.
2.2 Characteristics of meteorological conditions in the years of research.
3.BIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF VARIETIES OF RED CURRANT IN UTERINE PLANTS.
3.1. Shoot-restorative and shoot-productive ability.
3.2. Productivity of mother bushes.
3.3. Diseases and pests of red currant.
4. REPRODUCTION OF RED CURRANT.
4.1. Propagation by lignified cuttings.
4.1.1. Rooting rate of woody cuttings and the growth of annual plants of various varieties of red currant.
4.1.2. Techniques for preparing cuttings for planting.
4.1.3. Influence of the length of a lignified cuttings on rooting rate and indicators of plant development.
4.1.4 Effect of soil mulching with film on rooting rate of cuttings and biometric parameters of seedlings.
4.1.5. Rooting of woody cuttings in a film greenhouse and the growth of annual plants.
4.1.6. Rooting rate of lignified cuttings and seedlings yield depending on the place of cultivation.
4.2. Reproduction of red currant combined cuttings.
4.3. Reproduction of currants by red green cuttings.
4.3.1. Rooting of green cuttings of various varieties of red currant.
4.3.2 Influence of BCI on rooting rate of green cuttings.
4.4. Comparative characteristics of the effectiveness of propagation methods for red currant.
5. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF METHODS FOR CULTIVATION OF RED CURRANT SEEDLINGS.
This culture endows its owner with a decent harvest, without requiring much hassle in growing.
Red currant is unassuming to care for
The red currant will be happy with a housewarming party in a quiet and well-lit place: in shading, the quality and size of the crop decreases. She will not forgive planting in a lowland, where the soil dries out for a long time after melting snow and precipitation. A well-fertilized loamy or sandy loam soil with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction will help to achieve a rich harvest.
The best planting time is early autumn. Plant seedlings in fertilized soil straight or obliquely, deepening 5-7 cm. After planting, cut each shoot to 3-4 buds.
A currant seedling is easy to get from a lignified cutting
During the period of active growth and fruiting, water the berry regularly, spending 2-3 buckets of water for each square meter of the trunk circle. In dry autumn, watering is required.
In the spring, treat the red currants with a solution of mullein (1:10) or urea. During the period of berry filling, apply root top dressing with nitrophoska solution - and foliar solution "Uniflor Micro". In early autumn, apply fertilizers based on phosphorus and potassium, as well as humus.
Unproductive shoots must be removed
Maintain about 15-20 different-aged branches in the bush, leaving 3-4 replacement shoots annually and cutting out old (7-8 year old) branches. The tops of the shoots of this culture are not cut off: flower buds are formed on them.
Experienced gardeners praise such varieties of red currants as 'Jonkheer Van Tets' ('Jonker van Tets'), 'Rondom' ('Rondom'), 'Natalie', 'Generous', 'Serpentine', 'Firstborn' and others.
In our market you can choose the seedlings of this culture, including the varieties mentioned above. A selection of Red currant saplings.
If we recall the events of the middle of the last century, then two diseases dangerous for black currants were brought to our country: powdery mildew and terry. If you learned how to cope with powdery mildew.
2015-10-19 15:00:00 1756 views
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