Read the previous part. ← Pear requirements for growing conditions
The pear is a very picky plant. Either frost damage it, or drought. And in the south - the sun is too hot. Trees do not grow well. And the yields are small.
The pear develops a deep taproot. And the gardener himself is often to blame for this.
While the pear passes the time of youth, the gardener damages its roots three times. The first time the seedlings dive in the nursery. The second is when he puts them in the school. Third time, when transplanted into the garden at a permanent place.
For example, in Ukraine, in order to avoid damage to the roots, pears are grown in a direct way. They bear fruit after four years. With a normal planting, pears give fruit after seven years.
Another major problem with pears is winter varieties. There are few of them, and those that exist leave much to be desired. Some are small, like plums, others are often sick or simply tasteless. All the best pears, melting in your mouth and aromatic, are summer or autumn varieties.
In the northern regions of our country, only the most winter-hardy varieties of pears, grafted onto stable rootstocks and adapted to local climatic conditions, can grow and bear fruit. The frost resistance of the highest quality pear varieties can be increased by grafting them into the crown of varieties such as Thin line, Lemon and Summer bergamot.
In our country, there are about 40 species of wild pears. They are extremely valuable for rootstock use and breeding. To create pears with high winter hardiness, gardeners grow rootstocks from their seeds. Local winter-hardy forms of forest pear can also be used.
With a stable snow cover, the root system of a pear rarely freezes out, as it can withstand a decrease in temperature in the root layer to minus -10 ... -12 ° C. Autumn mulching and an increase in the layer of snow under the crown of a tree help to save its root system from freezing.
A common disadvantage of seed-grown pear rootstocks is weak branching of the roots, vigorous branches, as a result of which the trees grow tall and inconvenient for caring for them.
Places of pear grafting on the stem and on the skeletal branches
Now let's look at crops that can be used as rootstocks for pears.
Irga as a low-growing rootstock for pears, it can be used in spike and round-leaved form. They are distinguished by high frost resistance, undemanding to the soil, tolerate waterlogging and short-term drought, which allows irga to grow and bear fruit in the most extreme conditions.
When a pear is grafted onto an irga, a significant influx is almost always observed at the grafting site, but it does not weaken the mechanical strength of the combination of the scion with the stock. Since the irga below the grafting site is much thinner than the pear trunk, the grafted plants, like on any other dwarf rootstock, should be tied to a support.
A pear on an irga reaches a height of 2.5 m, that is, it is a typical dwarf plant.
Chokeberry or black chokeberry. A very light-loving plant. The root system can be damaged at temperatures around -12 ° C. Roots from damage can be saved with a snow layer of 15-20 cm. Chokeberry is hygrophilous. A biennial plant is used as a stock. Numerous basal shoots should be systematically removed, and the trunk should be tied to a support.
Grafting pears on rowan berries
Mountain ash... It is of interest as a pear stock. It grows successfully on insufficiently fertile lands. According to K.N. Korshunova, a pear grafted on a mountain ash, at the age of twenty does not exceed 3.5 m, therefore, it belongs to medium-sized. The compatibility of most varieties of pears with mountain ash is satisfactory. Fruiting begins in the fourth year. But not for all varieties of pear, rowan is suitable as a rootstock. Pears are poorly vaccinated and grow Tonkovetka, Blankova's daughter, Russian Malgorzhatka, Dulia Novgorodskaya. The fruits of a pear grafted on a mountain ash ripen 7-10 days later. Winter hardiness is high.
Hawthorn also has a high winter hardiness. As a stock for a pear, single-seeded and black-fruited hawthorn is suitable, Siberian hawthorn is not suitable.
It is not always possible to grow standard pear stocks in one season. This is especially true of rootstocks of irgi, chokeberry, hawthorn and seedlings of wild and cultivated pear. Use the method of sowing seeds directly in greenhouses or in peat pots in greenhouses, where optimal conditions are created for the rapid growth of seedlings.
Seedlings during autumn sowing appear 10-15 days earlier. Give the first top dressing in the initial growth phase, when the plant has 5-7 leaves; the second - in the phase of enhanced growth. To increase the winter hardiness of the rootstocks, give the third top dressing - phosphorus-potassium fertilizers before digging them.
Water and loosen the soil after each feeding.
The rootstocks obtained in one way or another can be grafted by budding, cuttings, or winter grafting can be used.
Winter grafting of pears is carried out from December to March in indoor conditions. In this case, improved copulation is mainly used. With different diameters of the rootstock and scion, the grafting is done in stock.
By the end of the year, plant the grafted plants in plastic containers measuring 22x25 cm with a substrate of peat and sand in a ratio of 3: 1. Place containers in sheltered greenhouses until April. When the scion reaches a height of 10 cm, feed the plants every 10-15 days with a solution of ammonium nitrate until they reach a height of 75-100 cm.
Overwintered one-year-olds are pruned to form a crown. Leave 10 internodes above the stem 40-50 cm. In the future, promptly remove shoots on the trunk and competitors with sharp corners at the continuation shoot. Continue the formation of the crown in two-year-olds.
Remove the warmest, sheltered from the winds, well-lit area with deep, loose, nutrient-rich and sufficiently moist soil.
Pears grafted on seedlings of winter-hardy cultivars and forest pears grow and bear fruit best on loamy and clayey soils, underlain by light loams. However, they do not cope well with heavy clayey moist and light dry sandy soils.
A pear grafted on dwarf rootstocks imposes increased requirements on the soil due to the more superficial location of the root system. In this case, the root system has a reduced frost resistance. In spring, flowers and young fruit ovaries can be damaged, and in winter at temperatures down to -35 ° C degrees, the tree can die.
Before planting, it is advisable to carry out deep tillage, remove the roots of old trees and shrubs, stones and woody vegetation. Digging up the soil to a depth of 40-45 cm, add manure or peat compost and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. This enriches the root layer with nutrients, reduces the density of the upper soil layers, improves air exchange and permeability, and normalizes the water and air regime of the root layer.
On medium podzolic soils, deep plowing is not carried out, since mixing the podzolic horizon with the upper soil layer can worsen the conditions for the development of the pear root system.
For pears, as well as for apple trees, grafted on vigorous rootstocks, holes are usually dug quite large: on poor heavy soil - 1-2 m wide, 0.6-0.8 m deep, or even deeper when it is necessary to remove the gley layer. impermeable to water and low permeability to roots. There is no need to make such extensive pits on good black soil, just as for trees grafted on semi-dwarf rootstocks, or on vigorous rootstocks, but with an insert of a low-growing rootstock. For them, pits with a diameter of 1 m and a depth of 0.5-0.6 m are sufficient, and for dwarfs - 0.9 m in diameter and 0.4-0.5 m deep. Pears can be planted in autumn and spring. For spring planting, holes are dug in the fall, and for autumn planting - in 3-4 weeks. Subsequent cultivation of the soil in the trunks is necessary. The earth must be poured so that a mound forms around the stake. At a distance of half a meter from the trunk, rake a small roller, forming a hole for watering.
Planting pears in a flower bed
After planting and compacting the soil, irrespective of the weather and soil moisture, water the soil using 2-3 buckets of water per tree. Wet soil settles vigorously, eliminating voids and making good contact with the root system. Cover the trunk circle with 5-10 cm of mulch. The tie stake should be as high as the first skeletal branch.
If the groundwater is close to the surface of the earth - a meter and a half, then fruit trees should be "raised" and planted on artificially filled hills, rather high. The mounds are made up to 3 m in diameter and up to 0.7-1 m high.
A hole is dug before reaching the aquifer. Arrange a drainage and put fertile soil on it, and on the horizon of the development of the root system - good soil with humus.
• Grafting of one type of plant to another
• Budding is an effective type of grafting of trees and shrubs
• How to grow rootstocks of fruit crops for an amateur gardener
Let's consider the main types of rootstocks, their advantages and disadvantages.
1. Seed stock. You can get it from seed or bone. For example, you sow a seed of an apple tree, from which a tree eventually grows - a seed stock.
2. Clonal rootstock. It is obtained exclusively in a vegetative way, i.e. rooting cuttings. Gardeners often use this method when it is necessary to attach certain valuable properties of the mother plant (scion) to the stock, for example, the sweet taste of the fruit.
Clonal rootstocks are of two types:
This method is especially convenient for amateur gardeners, as it makes it possible not only to grow a seedling yourself, but also to catch up if it was not possible to acquire it in the fall and there is no hope of getting it in the spring. Winter vaccination can help out. To do this, it is enough to have a stock and cuttings of the required variety, vaccinate yourself or purchase a grafted stock and grow it in a container. Film bags (Fig. 34) or other containers (vessels) are most often used as containers. About a month - one and a half before the start of spring field work, the rootstock grafted in winter is placed in a film bag with fertile soil (1 part of humus or peat is mixed with 2 parts of sod soil and 1 part of sand). The height of the package is 30-35 cm, the width is 25 cm. The lower corners of the package are cut, receiving holes with a diameter of about 3 cm for excess moisture to drain off.
a - seedlings in winter storage b - seedling c - seedling dug out with a clod of earth d - seedling packed in a bag e - vaccination site
When filling the package, the sides are left with a height of 3-4 cm to collect water during irrigation. The inoculation site should be at ground level (in doubles, the lower inoculation site). After planting packages of grafted rootstocks in the soil, the plants are watered and exposed to light (in a room or greenhouse). Usually they use the window sills of one of the rooms of the apartment. To create the conditions of a humid chamber in the initial period of growth (the first two to three weeks), another bag is put on top of the container or several containers are additionally covered with a film.
Plant care consists of systematically keeping the soil moist and removing weeds. With the onset of stable warm weather (usually at the end of May), the containers can be taken out to the balcony or to a permanent place in the garden area. By the fall, normal annual seedlings grow. When the plants reach a height of 50-60 cm, it is important not to forget to remove the strapping of the film connecting the grafts.
The advantage of this method of obtaining seedlings is also the possibility of planting them in a permanent place throughout the growing season (from May to autumn), as well as ease of transportation.
Seedlings in containers are less prone to drying out during transportation. It is also very important that they can be planted in a permanent place during the growing season - from the beginning of spring to the end of autumn. Seedlings in containers keep well in winter. If there are no rooted cuttings of a vegetatively propagated rootstock, but there are only seed stocks, to achieve an effect similar to grafting on a weakly growing stock, use the double grafting method, when between the stock and the scion (variety) an insert is made from a weak stock. This makes it possible to obtain seedlings in terms of their strength of growth, which are practically equivalent to those grafted directly on a weakly grown rootstock. However, the time required is about 1.5 times that of conventional vaccinations.
Unrooted cuttings or cuttings of vegetatively propagated rootstocks can be used as an insert (18-25 cm long, sometimes up to 40 cm). Most often, rootstocks M9 (para-disk 9), M26-396 and other dwarf forms of apple trees are used for these purposes.
Growing fruit trees and shrubs.
Organic acids, especially malic and citric acids, play the main role in the taste and nutritional properties of fruits. There are more of them in berry crops, less in pome crops. Thus, for the human body, pome fruits, which include apple and pear, are less useful than berry crops (currants, gooseberries, strawberries, raspberries).
It is recognized that a person should consume at least 100 kg of fruit per year. Based on this, it is necessary to use the suburban area optimally.
Almost all summer residents grow not only vegetables, but also fruit and berry crops. And this is justified.
When choosing a variety of fruit trees, shrubs, berries for growing on the site, in addition to the taste and nutritional qualities of the fruits, the period of their ripening, varietal pollination, it is important to take into account frost resistance and resistance to diseases. It should be borne in mind that during vegetative dormancy, the aboveground parts of fruit and berry plants tolerate frosts down to -26 ° C, while their roots freeze at -9 ° C (pear), -15 ° C (apple and currant). Therefore, it is very important to cover the soil around trees and berries before the onset of frost.
Should not be imported and plant fruit trees from outside the zoned zone, especially from its south or north. Such trees, as a rule, either freeze out, or develop poorly and bear little fruit. In this case, climatic conditions prevail. Moreover, the republic has a sufficient number of varieties of trees with different periods of fruit ripening.
When choosing a location, it is advisable to allocate the maximum of the allocated area for late varieties, somewhat less for autumn and a minimum for summer. And when placing trees on the northern and northwestern sides of the site, plant tall ones, to the south and southeast of them - half-stem and, finally, dwarf plants.
On plots with less limited areas, more often grow high-stem and semi-stem trees ... They live longer, although caring for them is more difficult (pruning, spraying, eating the fruit). Often they also bear periodic fruit.In dachas with small land plots, it is preferable to grow apple and pear trees in the form of wall rootstocks with a low trunk (40-60 cm), dwarf plantings (60-80 cm) or half-stem trees. The advantage of such plantings is accelerated and regular fruiting, simplifying their care and harvesting.
The optimal time for planting apple, pear and bushes is September-October before the onset of frost. The tree (shrub) should root well, and bloom earlier in the spring. It should not be allowed to dry out the roots before planting, and if this happens, then before planting a tree, a bush, it must be immersed in water for a day, and before planting, dipped in a humus-clay-dung chatterbox.
When renovating an old garden, fruit trees should not be planted in the same place. If another option is not possible, then you need to grow vegetables at this place for at least 4-5 years, adding manure and mineral fertilizers to the site. And before planting a new tree, you need to carefully dig up the area and remove even small roots of the old one. If a sick tree grew here, then it is best to refuse to plant a new tree in this place.
But where can you get a seedling? There are two main ways. The first, and the simplest, is to buy from gardeners or farms' nurseries. The second, more difficult one, is to grow a seedling yourself. Unfortunately, there are often cases when the purchased seedling turns out to be of the wrong variety or was grown in nurseries infected with cancer, which is even more annoying.
Thus, the safest way is to raise the game yourself and plant the desired variety on it. The process of influencing the seeds of fruit trees to obtain wild (rootstocks) from them is called stratification and lasts 120-130 days. For example, to get seeds of Antonovka vulgaris (one of the best varietal options), suitable for sowing in April, already in December - early January, the seeds are mixed with river sand (1: 3), moistened (water should not stand) and placed in a box in a cellar with a temperature of 5 to 10 ° C, periodically stir and moisten the mixture. By the spring they will be ready for sowing in the ground. On the stock grown over the year, a stalk of the desired apple variety should be grafted.
Sapling before landing inspect, remove damaged, dried, frozen roots. Pruning too long, weak. In the spring, the seedlings are examined, squeezed (trampled) around them the soil and mulched with peat or a mixture of compost with soil, which helps to retain moisture and better survival. Shoots are shortened, unnecessary ones are removed.
A standard seedling cannot be grown without installing an individual support. Supports can be used bamboo, wood, metal. In my nursery, the supports are made of wire with a diameter of 6 mm and a length of 175 cm. The support goes deep into the ground for the length, and I tie the growing seedling guide to the rest of the part.
When shoots grow long on the scion part, I install supports and make the first, main garter.
To do this, first remove all shoots below the graft, if any. First of all, I tie the stock below the graft to the support, then the graft in the place below the young shoot of the future guide. Then, if necessary, I tie up the escape of the selected conductor on its matured part. And only after completing the garter, I break out the rest, "extra" shoots of the cultivated variety.
Thus, after the first garter, only one shoot remains - the "guide", the seedling is leveled at the base. After that, I remove the label and screw it to the top of the support. In the future, as the seedling grows, I tie it to the support throughout the growing season. In July, after the intensive growth of plants on grafting, I cut the scotch tape to prevent constrictions.
Watering and feeding can be combined. In hot weather, I water it once a week. If there is a need to feed the plants, before watering, I sprinkle nitrogen fertilizer along the row, preferably urea, since it does not acidify the soil.
In mid-August, I finish watering and feeding in order to stop the growth of plants in a timely manner and enable the seedling wood to ripen, that is, to prepare it for winter. It is advisable to carry out the last dressing with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers. After each watering, it is necessary to loosen the soil, simultaneously destroying weeds, as a result of which there is no need to apply herbicides.
Protective measures against diseases and pests in the nursery must be carried out very carefully, at the same time as the agrotechnical processing of the garden.
I start selling seedlings in October directly from the nursery and, if the weather is favorable, I continue until the end of November. After the first frost, I dig out non-standard seedlings, tie them into bunches and put them for storage in the basement in the way described above.
In the spring I plant them in the next field of the nursery for growing. I cut some of them for re-growth, some, mainly with a well-ripened upper bud, I grow without pruning. I apply a differentiated approach to each plant.
Unsold seedlings (I have about 15% of the total number prepared for sale) in the second half of November I dig up and store in the basement all winter, and in the spring I sell them.
I do not bring my products to trade fairs or markets. A huge drawback, which many sellers in the markets sin, is the unprofessional storage of plants during sale. There are no labels with the names of varieties, the seedlings are injured, overdried.
Another thing is when the gardener independently chooses the seedlings of the varieties he needs right in the nursery, controlling the quality of each plant. With this method of selling the planting material, the trees receive minimal stress, and healthy seedlings are a guarantee of the stability of future yields.
In a hole prepared and filled with organic and mineral fertilizers, I plant the seedling so that the graft is 20 cm above the soil surface for low and medium-sized varieties, and 25 cm for vigorous ones.
After planting, I install a support, to which I tie the seedling in two places so that it does not sway with the wind, as this undermines the young roots that have taken root.
In our region, the best planting time is autumn. Since the root system works all year round, the seedling manages to take root and starts growing faster before the growing season. For the winter, I mulch the seedlings, wrap the trunks with sacking or paper. It is not recommended to cut off such seedlings or pick flowers (10% of seedlings have flower buds in the nursery).
Fig. 4. 3-year intensive garden
Formation in the first year of the growing season is that all branches formed above the trunk must be diverted horizontally from the conductor. This can be done in any way (clothespin, brace, weight, etc.).
In the second year of life, young trees bloom and begin to work for the harvest. I use the pruner only if a competing conductor appears, which grows at an acute angle and does not lend itself to bending.
In conclusion, I would like to note that growing seedlings is a creative and painstaking business, all technological operations, as links in one chain, are equally important. It is difficult to grow varietal planting material, but if you love the land and love to work on it, work is not a burden. I wish all gardeners good harvests!
Vyacheslav Levenets (Kryvyi Rih, Ukraine)