How to fertilize trees and how to choose fertilizer


Timely feeding of trees is extremely important for their correct growth, amicable flowering and abundant fruiting. You can fertilize the garden in the spring, after the snow has melted, and, if necessary, repeat the introduction of nutrients in the summer and in the fall.

When feeding is required

Fertilization in the garden should be depending on the type of soil and varieties of trees and shrubs. However, several general principles can be distinguished. The most important thing for trees in spring is vigorous growth, which can be provided by fertilizers with a high nitrogen content, such as manure. However, in no case should you use fresh. Overripe manure or compost should be brought into the trunks for digging.

Other sources of nitrogen can be mineral fertilizers - ammonium nitrate or urea. Three to four weeks after nitrogen fertilization, mineral fertilizers with a high potassium content can be applied to the soil. It should be borne in mind that the introduction of additional nutrients into the soil is not so important for young trees and shrubs as for fruit-bearing ones. Although both will be grateful for additional food after a particularly cold winter.

Feeding methods

Top dressing of trees can be done in different ways: you can fertilize the ground, providing root nutrition, or you can apply micronutrient fertilizers through the crown. The second method is often combined with pest control. The first use of fertilizers occurs when the garden is laid. Humus (or compost, or rotted manure), superphosphate, ash, and mineral compounds are introduced into the seedling pit. In the first year after such feeding, you can not apply additional fertilizers.

In the second year of growth, as well as before the beginning of fruiting, you can feed the tree with manure. The settled manure dissolved in water is one of the best fertilizers for an orchard. Usually, it is not recommended to use fresh manure for fertilizing - it is preferable to scatter it in the garden in the fall for digging, and then in winter it has enough time to decompose so that its nutrients pass into the soil in a form that is convenient for plants to assimilate. However, fresh manure can also be used for liquid top dressing. To do this, it is dissolved in water, in a ratio of one to five, and left for a week under a tight lid. This fertilizer should be applied after watering the trees. This feeding can be repeated in the summer, but no later than in the second half of July.

Video "Review of the most popular tree food"

Video review of the most popular fertilizing for fruit trees, as well as useful tips for their use.

Through the roots

This is the traditional way to apply any fertilizer, both mineral and organic (manure, peat, compost). This method is based on the natural life cycle of any plant. The basic rule of root dressing of the garden is that in rainy weather, fertilizers are used in a dry form, and in a dry tree, you first need to water it well and only then feed it.

Under the apple trees in the spring, you can apply cow dung (about 4 kg per tree), or bird droppings diluted in a ratio of 1 to 15. Having opted for mineral fertilizers, you can compensate for the lack of nitrogen in the soil with the help of ammonium nitrate - 30 grams per square meter. A little later, apple trees will need potassium, which can be obtained from potassium sulfate - 10-20 grams per square meter.

For pear growth, it is good to apply organic fertilizers every two to three years, depending on the condition of the soil. The pear menu in the spring is similar to the apple menu - 4 kilograms of rotted manure or compost and one hundred grams of superphosphate must be embedded in the soil. Stone fruits (cherries, plums) should be properly fed with organic fertilizers every two to three years, with an autumn digging. In the spring, a nutrient solution with nitrogen-containing compounds can be prepared for them.

Through the crown

This method of fertilizing can be compared to an ambulance. Foliar dressing can be relevant if you urgently need to replenish the lack of nutrients. Foliar dressing should be carried out after the end of flowering. They can be repeated several times - a week after the end of flowering, a month after the first time, and in summer, but no later than three weeks before harvesting - so all the nutrients will be assimilated, but will not be in excess.

It is necessary to apply fertilizer for foliar feeding in dry, but cloudy and cool weather, it is correct to do it in the morning or evening hours, thus you can guarantee the absence of burns on the leaves. For apple trees, you can use a urea solution (2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water) - spray both on the leaves and on the branches and trunk. You can also spray the trees with an ash solution, which is a good source of calcium, phosphorus and potassium. To prepare top dressing, you need to insist a glass of ash in 2 liters of hot water, then dilute the resulting suspension in 10 liters of water. You can use liquid manure for foliar feeding - dilute half a liter in a bucket of water, then strain.

The pear is a more delicate tree than the apple tree. It can also be fed with urea, but it will be correct to reduce the concentration - 1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water. Kostochkovs need a little more nitrogen fertilizers for optimal growth. Therefore, the concentration of urea for foliar feeding should be higher - 3-3.5 tablespoons per ten liters of water. Also, for the growth of any fruit trees and berry bushes, micronutrient feeding is necessary. To do this, you can use a solution of complex mineral fertilizers.

How to understand that a plant is missing something

If the tree does not grow well, is covered with small leaves, the fruits do not set or ripen, then it is time to apply fertilizers. By the appearance of plants, it is sometimes possible to determine which elements in the diet are lacking.

Pale green, yellowish or white leaves give off nitrogen deficiency, especially on sandy soils. If the plant does not grow well at the same time, flowering is delayed - it is necessary to add manure or compost. With a lack of phosphorus, the leaves can take on a dark green, bluish or purple hue. After detecting such a problem, it is necessary to apply superphosphate, nitroammophos or phosphate rock. When the plant lacks potassium, the leaves wrinkle, curl, flowers crumble, even from young trees. This problem can be solved by using potassium chloride, potassium sulfate or potassium nitrate. Well-nourished trees will create a well-kept garden that will delight both winter and summer.

Video "How to feed trees in the spring season"

Demonstration video on how to feed trees in spring.


Fertilizers for trees: when, how and which ones to apply

You can get a high yield from fruit trees, create a unique alley of conifers only with proper feeding. In the soil without fertilizers, there are not enough nutrients for full growth and fruiting. In addition, there are no trace elements that increase resistance to viral, microbial and fungal diseases. Consider which fertilizer for the tree to choose. When and how to make it.


How to fertilize fruit trees

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If you have a garden plot, chances are you are growing fruit trees there. The orchard next to the house is pleasing to the eye, and the ripe, juicy fruits from your own trees will please all members of your family. Of course, growing fruit trees requires a lot of work and special knowledge, but if you take proper care of your garden, the trees will grow and delight you with delicious fruits. Every gardener needs to know how to properly fertilize fruit trees in order to provide them with the conditions for optimal growth and abundant fruiting.


Seasonality of fertilization

The active period of adding microelements to the soil: autumn, when trees are deficient in phosphorus and potassium, and in spring, when the sap begins to move along the trunks, branches, buds swell. In the spring, the land is fed twice: when the plant is just beginning to awaken and after 3 weeks.

What fertilizers are needed for trees depends on their type, soil composition and natural disasters. For fruit plants, the following are most often applied:

  • In the spring, ammonium nitrate with urea.
  • At the end of flowering - complex granular fertilizers.
  • During fruiting - formulations without nitrogen, which retards ripening.
  • In the fall, potassium and phosphorus.

It is worth considering the type of plant. So, it is better for apple and pear to introduce organic matter with a minimum amount of nitrogen compounds. The best option for the second spring bait is 1.5 glasses of ash infusion with 30 g of ammophos per sq. meter. The solution is introduced into the wells along with watering.


Top dressing of seedlings

The quantity and quality of fertilizers depends solely on the composition of the soil, but top dressing of garden trees and shrubs in the spring, especially before planting seedlings, is required.

The presence of phosphorus in the soil is especially important for seedlings, since it is this that affects their growth and rapid adaptation. Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers should be laid before the seedlings are planted.

It is best to do this in a layer deeper than the hole, under a tree or bush. It is also important that fertilizers are put in large quantities at once, with the expectation of several years. Fertilizing trees and shrubs in spring with phosphorus is important only for young trees, as it stimulates their rapid growth.

Other fertilizers should not be given to trees younger than two years old only if the soil has not been completely depleted before. Otherwise, it should first be thoroughly fertilized and restored, and only then the garden should be laid.


Types of fertilizers and recommendations for their use

Correct systematic tillage and fertilization provide improved soil fertility and increased crop yields. When applying fertilizers, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the soil of the site: the degree of its fertility and the supply of nutrients, the mechanical composition of the soil, the reaction of the environment, the age of the plantings, etc.

All fertilizers are divided into organic, mineral, organo-mineral, bacterial and micronutrient fertilizers.

Organic fertilizers include manure, bird droppings, compost, sawdust, shavings, and green fertilizers. Such fertilizers improve the physical properties and structure of the soil, its air and water regimes, enrich the soil with readily soluble nutrients and humus, and are also a source of food and energy for soil microorganisms. Organic fertilizer nutrients are readily available to plants after mineralization.

The most common organic fertilizer is manure. It contains a large number of microorganisms that help to ensure the decomposition of organic matter into individual, easily assimilated elements by plants. Manure also contains cobalt, copper, molybdenum, boron and manganese.

Poultry manure contains more nutrients than manure, which allows for less feeding. It contains all the essential nutrients necessary for plants, but in much greater quantities than manure.

Compost provides the soil with nutrients. It can be prepared from a variety of organic waste, that is, dry leaves, sawdust, tops, pond silt and more. Manure, bird droppings and peat are often added to compost.

Peat increases the humus content of the soil and improves its structure. The dark color of peat promotes heat absorption and rapid heating of the soil. Distinguish high-moor peat - characterized by a low degree of decomposition of plant residues and high acidity low-lying - with a high degree of decomposition and lower acidity and transitional - occupies an intermediate position between high and low.

They bring in peat at any time of the year, even in winter in the snow. But lime must be added to it. In the garden, peat is best added to composts, as well as to soil mixtures for growing seedlings and greenhouse crops.

Wood sawdust and shavings are mainly used to make the earth loose. These fertilizers are very dry and absorb nitrogen, therefore, before applying them, it is necessary to water the soil with a solution of chicken manure or urea.

Green fertilizers consist of crushed annual legumes that are cut during the flowering period. They are used to domesticate the earth by burying it in the ground. This top dressing improves the subsoil and saturates it with nitrogen and other elements.

Organic fertilizers should be applied during a warm period - either in early autumn or in spring, when the soil is already warming up.

When organic fertilizer is applied in autumn, it, as a rule, decomposes more slowly and the process of its incorporation into humus is more intensive, which to a greater extent contributes to the creation of soil fertility. When organic fertilizer is applied in spring, it decomposes faster and better supplies the plants with soluble nutrients. In spring and early summer, plants require abundant nutrition, as this is the period of their active growth. Thus, autumn fertilization improves soil fertility, while spring fertilization enhances plant nutrition.

Depending on different conditions, organic fertilizers are applied annually, every other year or once every 3-4 years, increasing the dose accordingly. The poorer the soil, the more organic fertilizer is required.

Mineral fertilizers are necessary for the soil to replenish the supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. Plants consume nutrients in different amounts at different stages of life. Plants absorb nitrogen most of all during the period of active growth - from the moment of germination of seeds to the formation of the first flowers. Plants need phosphorus during the germination period. During the preparation of plants for winter, potassium plays an important role.

Nitrogen fertilizers are obtained mainly from the synthesis of ammonia from molecular nitrogen and hydrogen. Nitrogen plays an important role in metabolism. It is found in enzymes, proteins, vitamins, alkaloids, nucleic acids, chlorophyll and other compounds.

Nitrogen fertilizers are divided into: ammonium (liquid ammonia, ammonia water), ammonium (ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride), nitrate (sodium, calcium nitrate), ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate) and amide (urea, calcium cyanamide). Nitrate forms are poorly absorbed by the soil and are easily washed out by irrigation water and precipitation from the upper horizons.

The most widely used fertilizers are ammonia: they are more concentrated and cheaper, and the increase in soil acidity caused by them can be eliminated by liming.

Nitrogen fertilizers are readily soluble in water and quickly flow to the root system of plants. The use of nitrogen fertilizers is effective on all soils, including fertile chernozems, especially on podzolic soils.

On light sandy soils, nitrogen fertilizers are very quickly washed out into the lower horizons, so they are applied in spring or summer when feeding. On clay soils - it is possible in the fall for digging.

A prerequisite for all liquid nitrogen fertilizers is their immediate incorporation into moist soil at a shallow depth. If the soil is dry, the soil should be watered immediately after fertilization.

The nitrogen rate for different crops depends on the fertility and moisture content of the soil, the predecessor, the method of fertilization, and the size of the planned yield. The lower the soil fertility and the higher the planned yield, the more nitrogen fertilizers need to be applied.

With a high supply of plants with phosphorus and potassium, the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers increases significantly.

Signs of nitrogen starvation are the slow growth of vegetative organs of plants and the appearance of pale green, even yellow-green, leaf color as a result of disruption of the processes of chlorophyll formation.

before sowing as the main fertilizer in spring, can also be applied from autumn

Ammonium chloride NH4CL 24-25% N and 66% Cl

not recommended for crops sensitive to chlorine

in autumn, on neutral and alkaline soils for autumn cultivation as the main fertilizer

Liquid (anhydrous) ammonia NH3 82.3% N

applied by special machines and embedded to a depth of at least 10 - 12 cm, and on light soils, in order to reduce nitrogen losses from ammonia evaporation, to a depth of 14 - 18 cm

the main fertilizer for feeding tilled crops with the obligatory wrapping into the soil by at least 12 cm

Sodium nitrate NaNO3 15-16% N and 26% Na

during sowing and for feeding on acidic soils, they are not used on salt licks and saline soils, it is possible to mix with superphosphate and other fertilizers only before applying to the soil

during sowing and for feeding on acidic soils in spring, it is impossible to mix with superphosphate, with other fertilizers before applying to the soil - you can

root top dressing - spring, first half of summer (on heavy soils, for digging, on light soils, for raking) can be mixed with superphosphate and potassium salts before application

root dressing-spring, first half of summer foliar dressing on clay soils-in autumn for digging: can be mixed with superphosphate if it is previously neutralized (for 1 kg of superphosphate - 0.1 kg of ground limestone)

UAN (urea-ammonium nitrate)

for 28%: 7% NO3, 7% NH4 and 14% NH2

main fertilization and top dressing foliar dressing of winter crops

Phosphate fertilizers

Phosphorus is part of proteins. It is obtained from apatite, phosphorite, vivianite and waste of the metallurgical industry - tomoslag, phosphate slag. Phosphate fertilizers are divided into: water-soluble (simple and double superphosphates), insoluble in water, but soluble in weak acids (precipitate, tomoslag) and hardly soluble in water, but soluble in weak acids (phosphate rock).

Water-soluble fertilizers are used on all types of soils, for all crops. Semi-soluble - depending on the type of soil - on acidic soils, their effect may be stronger (tomoslag, thermophosphates) than superphosphates. Difficult to dissolve are effective on acidic soils of the Non-Chernozem zone and on northern chernozems (leached, degraded).

The introduction of phosphorus into the soil increases the reducing properties of plant tissues due to changes in the redox potential. Phosphorus accelerates plant development. With a sufficient supply of phosphorus, the formation of flowers increases and their quality improves.

Phosphorus fertilizers can be applied in the fall for autumn plowing (i.e., for spring sowing crops), in early spring for pre-sowing treatment, during planting and for top dressing, since phosphorus is easily retained by the soil and is not washed out. The greatest need for phosphorus is during flowering and fruit formation.

Phosphorus is a low-mobile element, poorly soluble in water, and it takes a long time from application to reaching plant roots, therefore it is better to apply phosphorus fertilizers in the fall for digging with embedding them to the depth of the roots. The older the plant, the deeper the fertilizer is applied to prevent damage to the roots.

On loamy and clayey soils, phosphorus fertilizers can be applied in spring or autumn, annually or every 3-4 years, respectively, increasing the dose. And it is better to use hardly soluble forms in combination with superphosphate.

On carbonate or typical chernozems, where the soils have a neutral or even alkaline reaction of the environment, the phosphorus of the phosphorite meal remains in a form inaccessible to plants, and on such soils it is useless to apply this fertilizer. Phosphoric flour can be used for composting (peat-phosphorite composts) - used to enrich organic fertilizers with missing nutrients and eliminate their acidity, which inhibits the development of microorganisms.

The efficiency of phosphorus fertilizers increases with the optimal content of nitrogen and potassium in the soil, as well as with the introduction of trace elements. When applying manure, the dose of phosphorus fertilizers must be halved.

With a lack of phosphorus, the accumulation of anthocyanin pigment occurs. The leaves acquire a bluish tint, and with a strong predominance of pigment, they become purple. In addition, plants that contain little chlorophyll - stems, petioles, veins, the lower surface of the leaves - are painted in reddish and purple colors.

Types of fertilizers and recommendations for their application (part two)

Potash fertilizers

Potassium is a regulator of many life processes, promotes the normal course of photosynthesis, helps plants synthesize sugar, enhances winter hardiness, drought resistance, plant resistance to fungal diseases. Enriched fossil ores containing soluble potassium and crude potassium salts are used as potash fertilizers. Potassium becomes available to plants only when dissolved in water.

Potash fertilizers are subdivided into raw potassium salts - made by grinding natural minerals (sylvinite, kainite) and concentrated - manufactured in the factory (potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, 30-40% potassium salts, potash, potassium magnesium).

All potash fertilizers are highly soluble in water. On acidic soils, potassium chloride is recommended. In areas with little rainfall and in greenhouses, it is better to use potassium sulfate. In areas with a lot of precipitation - potassium chloride.

On clay and loamy soils, potash fertilizers are fixed at the place of application, therefore fertilizers are applied in the fall (annually or once every 3-4 years) and embedded deeply - closer to the roots. On light sandy and sandy loam soils, as well as on peat bogs, potash fertilizers penetrate well throughout the fertile soil layer, therefore they are applied in the spring (annually). There is comparatively a lot of potassium on gray soils, therefore potash fertilizers are not applied or given in small quantities.

Potassium chloride and potassium salt contain chlorine, which is harmful to plants at high concentrations. Unlike potassium, chlorine is not fixed by the soil, but is washed out into the groundwater, so it is better to apply such fertilizers in the fall to allow the chlorine to wash out. If chlorine potash fertilizers were not applied in the fall, they are applied in the spring for plowing, but in this case, chlorine-containing fertilizers can have a negative effect on the yield of chlorine-sensitive crops. Potassium sulfate can be applied both in autumn and spring for all crops. All these fertilizers are highly soluble in water. In addition, potassium magnesium enriches the soil with magnesium.

Potash fertilizers applied in small doses are more economical and give better results than one- or two-fold application of them in large doses. Potash fertilizers can be mixed with other fertilizers and applied at one time. In humid, cool conditions, potassium is more effective, even with its high content in the soil.

With a lack of potassium in plants, photosynthesis sharply decreases, the yield decreases, the fruits are small, the plants become susceptible to various diseases and are damaged by pests. Excess potassium is not harmful to plants, but it disturbs the nutritional balance of plants. Excessive consumption of potassium by plants is possible only if there is a lack of available nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil.

57-60% К2О, 1 kg К2О contains 0.9-1 kg of chlorine

Potassium sulfate (potassium sulfate) K2SO4

48-54% К2О, 1 kg К contains 1 kg S

for all cultures, incl. horticultural, especially berry and vegetable crops, especially crops sensitive to chlorine

both in autumn, before digging a garden, and in spring and summer, when feeding on all soils, it can be mixed with any fertilizer

Potassium salts (mKCl + nNaCl) + KCl 40% К2О, 20% Na2O 1 kg К2О contains 1.3-1.9 kg Сl

for fruit and berry crops

basic fertilizer with deep plowing under the plow, preferably from autumn under the plow

Kalimag (potassium-magnesium concentrate)

1 kg of K2O contains 0.1 kg of chlorine

chlorine sensitive crops

in autumn for autumn plowing on light soils as the main fertilizer and in top dressing

Kalimagnesia (potassium magnesium sulfate)

for crops sensitive to chlorine (flax, potatoes, clover)

the main fertilizer and in top dressing is very effective on light sandy and sandy loam soils

on acidic soils or mixed with peat (1: 1)

10-12% K2O, 20-25% Na2O, 6-7% MgO і 30-32% Cl

the main fertilizer in the fall for autumn cultivation

in autumn for autumn cultivation as the main fertilizer

Wood ash K2CO3, contains phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and trace elements

in autumn for digging, in spring - when planting and in summer - as dry and liquid dressings on acidic light soils and peat bogs

as a potash fertilizer and ameliorant on acidic soils

Complex fertilizers

Complex fertilizers are the most common, they contain two or more nutrients and are subdivided into complex ones - they are obtained by chemical interaction of the initial components (ammophos, diammophos, potassium nitrate), complex-mixed - produced from simple or complex fertilizers, but added during the manufacturing process phosphoric or sulfuric acids with subsequent neutralization (nitrophoska, nitroammophos) and mixed or fertilizer mixtures - a product of mechanical mixing of ready-made simple and complex fertilizers.

They are nitrogen-phosphorus, nitrogen-potassium, nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium. These fertilizers have little or no ballast, and the concentration of nutrients is very high.

When using complex fertilizers, it is necessary to take into account their composition and the needs of the crop. All these fertilizers contain different percentages of mineral elements. If the plants lack a certain element, you can change the composition by adding simple forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium to it to the desired ratio.

Complex fertilizers are applied both in spring and summer. If nitrogen is contained in complex fertilizers, they must be applied in the spring to avoid nitrogen leaching. If fertilizers do not contain nitrogen, you can apply them in the fall. Complex fertilizers intended for dressing are applied during the growing season.

When applying fertilizers on depleted soils, the dose is increased by 50%. When planting bushes, trees, flowers and seedlings of vegetable crops, fertilizers are pre-mixed with the soil, laid in a hole and isolated from the roots with a layer of clean soil of at least 5-8 cm.

The application of complex fertilizers in granular form, not only randomly, but also in rows with seeds or in furrows with tubers, greatly simplifies the application.

in spring on acidic soils as a top dressing in an area of ​​insufficient moisture, with a non-flush type of water regime - the main fertilizer

main and row application, for feeding during the growing season for main crops in open and closed ground

all crops, especially vegetables

into neutral soil in spring during the main processing and as a top dressing

on all soils, especially effective on clay, sandy and peat bog soils

for feeding perennial, bulbous and annual crops in combination with ash or potassium sulfate can also be used for summer feeding

more often as the main fertilizer, in rows or holes when sowing less often - in top dressing, due to the slow action on plants

NH4H2PO4, KNO3, NH4Cl, NH4NO3, KCl

the main fertilizer and as top dressing - spring, summer

Magnesium ammonium phosphate MgNH4PO4 nH2O

10-11% N 45-46% P2O5 і 26% MgO

on light sandy soils and irrigated lands

Ammonium metaphosphate (NH4PO3) n

on acidic soils as the main fertilizer

on light soils as the main fertilizer

greenhouse crops

only in top dressing, due to the speed of action on crops

ZhKU (liquid complex fertilizers) 12-15% (NH4) 2HPO4 2-4% NH4H2PO4- 12-13% CO (NH2) 2 13-14% KCl

continuous distribution over the soil surface before plowing and cultivation with subsequent embedding, locally during sowing, as well as for feeding agricultural crops Compatible with other fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides

Superfoska 12-16% N і 12-21% К2О

applied both in spring and autumn

Complex fertilizers also include Everris fertilizers that are tailored to the needs of ornamental plants. They are divided according to the following principle: controlled release of nutrients (Osmocote® Exact, Osmoform), slow release (Sierraform, Sierrablen) and water soluble (Peters Excel, Peters Professional, Universol, Agroleaf).

Scotts fertilizers contain macro- (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium) and microelements (iron, zinc, manganese, molybdenum, copper, boron) necessary for plants in a form available to them, nutrients are released from the granule gradually, so that plants evenly throughout throughout the entire period, the necessary nutrients are obtained, the possibility of a chemical burn of the root system is excluded. These fertilizers do not require frequent application, which in turn reduces labor costs during fertilization. The process of supply of nutrients to the roots of a plant is influenced by only one factor - temperature. At low temperatures, the release of nutrients is slowed down, and at higher temperatures, it is accelerated. After the nutrients in the capsule are used up, the shell is decomposed by soil microorganisms.

Types of fertilizers and recommendations for their application (part 3)

With the simultaneous use of organic and mineral fertilizers, the effectiveness of both organic and mineral components increases. This leads to an improvement in the physical properties of the soil, an increase in the supply of nutrients and humus, as a result of which the quality and yield of crops are improved. At the same time, mineral fertilizers can regulate the ratio of nutrients and compensate for their deficiency in organic fertilizers.

Organo-mineral fertilizers are obtained by physical and chemical interaction of organic and mineral components. They come in the form of granules, tablets, free-flowing and liquid mixtures.

The most common are peat-ammonia, peat-mineral and peat-mineral-ammonia fertilizers. Natural organo-mineral fertilizers include sapropel - bottom sediments of freshwater reservoirs, which are formed from the remains of plants, animals, as well as from organic and mineral impurities brought by water and wind. Sapropel is used in greenhouses, when growing flowers, ornamental shrubs, fruit and berry plantings, as a component in creating artificial lawns, etc.

Organo-mineral fertilizers can be used on all types of soils for all crops as the main fertilizer, pre-sowing application and top dressing, as well as for the preparation of soil mixtures. Liquid fertilizers are used for foliar feeding.

At this time, the most widely used fertilizers are listed in the table.

Energy 0.88% N, 2.4% P2O5, 0.88% K2O

Dobri dobriva 1.5-4.3% N, 2-4.5% P2O5, 1.5-4% K2O

cereals, vegetables, millet crops, in gardens

main fertilizer, in gardens - local application

Universal 2-13% N, 4-10% P2O5, 4-12% K2O

preparation of soil mixtures for growing seedlings

Organic 1.5-4% N, 1-3% P2O5, 1.5-2.5% K2O

cereals, vegetable crops flowers, horticultural crops, fruit trees

the main fertilizer and top dressing - for grain and vegetable crops, for the rest - root dressing

Bacterial fertilizers are preparations that contain soil microorganisms useful for plants, which help to improve plant nutrition and enhance biochemical processes. They do not contain nutrients. Bacterial fertilizers increase the fertile properties of the soil and convert inaccessible forms of nutrients into forms accessible to plants.

The most common bacterial fertilizers include nitragin, azotobacterin, phosphobacterin, biologically active soil AMB, etc.

Nitragin is a mixture of bacteria that live on the roots of legumes and are capable of absorbing nitrogen from the air. Before adding to the soil, the drug must be dissolved in water and the seeds are moistened in the resulting solution. Nitragin is especially effective when combined with organic and mineral fertilizers.

Azotobacterin is prepared from active cultures of the microorganism - azotobacter, which develops only in fertile soils rich in organic matter. This drug should only be applied to moist soil. Azotobacter promotes the accumulation of nitrogen and available forms of phosphorus in the soil. On the day of sowing or planting, they are treated with seeds, tubers or seedling roots. The treatment is carried out in the shade, since the drug is afraid of light.

Phosphorobacterin contains a large number of spores of phosphorus bacteria, which convert organic phosphorus compounds into forms accessible to plants, especially on soils with a high humus content. The most effective against the background of organic and mineral fertilizers.

AMB fertilizer is a complex preparation of the so-called autochthonous microflora B, which contains a large number of various microorganisms that play an important role in the root nutrition of plants. AMB is used to create soil in greenhouses and greenhouses when growing vegetables and seedlings. The fertilizer is obtained by introducing lime material, mineral additives containing P and K, and a mother culture of AMB bacteria into sour peat. After that, in a thoroughly mixed mass of soil at 18-30 ° C, microbiological mineralization of humus actively occurs and part of the nutrients that are difficult to access for plants are converted into easily digestible compounds.

Also in Ukraine, such drugs have been developed as diazophyte, azorizin, kleps, rhizoenterin - all these fertilizers contribute to the improvement of nitrogen nutrition of plants, and bi-peat fertilizer - a complex action preparation based on azotobacter and phosphate-mobilized bacteria - improves nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition, protects plants from phytopathogens.

Fertilizers are prepared in the amount required for only one season, since they cannot withstand long-term storage. Store in a dry room at a temperature of 0 - 10 ° C in the original container cannot be stored in a warehouse where volatile pesticides are located.

For the effective action of bacterial fertilizers, the optimal conditions are as follows: soil moisture 60-70% of full moisture capacity, temperature 20-25 ° C, pH 6.5-7.5.

On acidic and cold soils, the effect of bacterial fertilizers is sharply reduced, therefore they are preliminarily lime.

Microfertilizers are fertilizers that contain trace elements that plants consume in small quantities. They are copper, manganese, zinc, boric, cobalt and others, as well as polymicro-fertilizers containing two or more microelements. They help fight fungal diseases. They are introduced in very small quantities. The most common are boron, manganese, molybdenum, copper and zinc fertilizers.

When plants are damaged, physiological and biochemical processes are disturbed and their elemental composition deteriorates. Plants are deficient in microelements and need additional fertilizing, which stabilizes metabolic processes in plants. This increases the resistance of plants to pathogens.

Boron fertilizers must be applied on podzolic soils, light sandy and sandy loam soils, as well as dark-colored boggy soils, contain little boron. Boron can also be effective in areas where, for several years, high doses of mineral fertilizers were applied, and manure was applied little and rarely. On soils that received lime in overestimated doses, the effect of boric fertilizers is most likely.

The most common forms of boron fertilizers are: borosuperphosphate, double superphosphate with boron addition, boron fertilizers, calcium ammonium nitrate containing boron, boric acid and its sodium salt.

Boron fertilizers are applied in the spring for the first treatment, evenly scattering them over the surface and digging up the soil. A small amount of fertilizer is difficult to evenly distribute over the site, so they are mixed with crushed soil and sand, and then the mixture is sieved. Fertilizer can also be dissolved in water, poured over the soil with this solution and then dug up. Boron fertilizers are used for spraying and foliar feeding. Boric acid and borax are used for pre-sowing seed treatment and foliar dressing.

Manganese deficiency is most often observed on chernozem and soddy-calcareous soils with a neutral or alkaline reaction, on sandy and sandy loam, as well as on carbonate peatlands. On acidic soddy-podzolic soils, the manganese content is high; therefore, manganese fertilizers can be applied only after liming.

As manganese fertilizers are used: manganese sulfate, manganized granular superphosphate and waste of the manganese ore industry - manganese sludge.

Manganized superphosphate is used when sowing in rows. Manganese sulfate is used for pre-sowing seed treatment and foliar feeding. Manganese sludge is used before sowing for fall plowing or fall plowing, in the soil for top dressing.

The use of molybdenum fertilizers is most effective for legumes and vegetables, perennial and annual legumes, in meadows and pastures with a legume component in herbage on acidic soddy-podzolic, gray forest soils and leached chernozems. With an acidic reaction, molybdenum is in a form inaccessible to plants, therefore, there is very little molybdenum on acidic soils. With liming, the mobility of molybdenum increases, it becomes available to plants and the need for molybdenum fertilizers is reduced or eliminated completely.

As molybdenum fertilizers are used: molybdenum-acid ammonium (for pre-sowing seed treatment) superphosphate, simple and double waste of the electric lamp industry.

Molybdenized superphosphate is introduced into the rows during sowing, and ammonium molybdate is used for foliar dressing.

Copper fertilizers are applied on newly developed lowland peatlands and waterlogged soils with a neutral or alkaline reaction, as well as on sod-gley soils.

The following are used as copper fertilizers: waste of the sulfuric acid industry - pyrite cinders (for autumn plowing or in the spring before sowing) and copper sulfate (used for pre-sowing seed treatment and foliar feeding). On peat soils, the use of copper-potash fertilizers is effective.

Zinc deficiency most often manifests itself on calcareous soils with a neutral and slightly alkaline reaction. In acidic soils, zinc is more mobile and available to plants. Carbonate soils, especially those with phosphates, are also poor in zinc due to the systematic application of high rates of phosphorus fertilizers. On these soils, there is often a need for zinc fertilizers.

As zinc fertilizers used: zinc sulfate, zinc superphosphate and industrial waste - slags from copper smelters.

The latter are used for pre-sowing seed treatment and foliar feeding. Superphosphate enriched with zinc is applied to the soil during sowing and to the main fertilizer.


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