The variety of cabbage "Belorusskaya" has a long history and is gaining more and more connoisseurs. For more than seventy years, gardeners and large agricultural enterprises have been relying on this particular variety. According to the description, the variety has a large number of advantages.
In 1937, the Institute of Breeding bred a variety of white cabbage, which is resistant to frost and a variety of diseases in terms of characteristics. It quickly entered the list of agriculturally recognized varieties.
"Belorusskaya" differs in that the maturation period is quite suitable for cold regions... During the mass gain, the head of cabbage grows stronger, low temperatures have a beneficial effect on the quality.
According to the description, this is a late variety with a ripening period. from 110 to 130 days... Planting of this variety can begin even in June, since it is preferable to organize harvesting in late September - early October.
Heads of cabbage are round, slightly flattened, strong and dense. When fully ripe, they reach 3 - 4 kg... They do not crack, they easily tolerate a short-term drought, if they did not suffer a drought in the first two weeks after planting in the ground. Easy to transport.
In the summer months, if the head of cabbage is curled, it does not break through with hail, thanks to the dense outer leaves.
Of the advantages, one can single out the main features thanks to which this variety is chosen by gardeners:
With proper care in the first three weeks, yield and disease resistance are significantly increased.
There are disadvantages that significantly reduce the desire of beginners to use this variety annually:
There is no need to rush to plant the seeds ahead of time. The optimal time is mid-Mayif you plan to use it for fermentation or storage.
If this variety is used for harvesting, some can be sown in early May, and in September it is safe to use the crop for conservation.
Seedling seeds do not require special preparation and soaking... The main thing is to prevent the soil from drying out. Seeds sprout on days 4 - 7 amicably enough, and quickly reach for the light, so make sure that the seedlings are in a lighted window, or in a greenhouse.
For sowing seeds, choose sod soil, do not add black soil. The presence of loam in the soil is useful for seedlings.
You can plant both in separate cups and in a common box - the seedlings are easily restored after transplanting and a slight violation of the root structure.
After planting the seeds, spill the soil with warm water, cover with foil, and leave it until the first shoots appear.
Seedlings, for full development, must more time in the sun, the soil should not dry out... If there is an opportunity for this, on warm days, take it outside, or in a greenhouse. At night, be sure to bring it into the house, since the temperature is optimal for healthy growth - from 18 degrees above zero, and in May the nights are quite cold.
It is necessary to plant seedlings in the ground later than one month of age, and ideally at the age one and a half months... The stalk should be short and dense, thicker than a pencil.
Choose loamy soil, and a place on the site that is illuminated by the sun in the morning. This is important for cabbage. She will perfectly survive the absence of day and evening sun, but without morning sun she will be sick.
Despite the fact that this is a moisture-loving plant, do not break the beds in the lowland, and moreover, the beds must be made higher - groundwater is destructive to the roots.
Form the bed from north to south, and then the shoots will receive enough sunlight. If possible, sow mustard in early spring and dig up the soil along with mustard seedlings before planting.
Make beds of medium height, keep in mind that the holes should not be on a level or below the border. In the event of a rainy summer, this way, the roots will not get wet, and excess moisture will go to the inter-spaces.
Put a handful of black soil (last year's manure), a tablespoon of wood ash in each hole. Do not overdo it with fertilizers, cabbage did not like excessively greasy soil, so it will not curl for a long time.
Aged 35 - 50 days, the seedlings must be planted in the ground. To do this, you should choose a cool day, and best of all rainy days, during which the seedlings will easily survive the transplant and get sick.
Make holes with distance 50 to 50 cm... spill each hole with two liters of water, put in humus and ash.
Place one root in each hole, put earth on top of the root, and press lightly. Do not add a lot of soil, the first leaves that remain on the stem should remain on top of the ground.
Drizzle again with a little water. If the weather is sunny, it is necessary to shade the seedlings for the first 3 - 4 days. After the cabbage leaves have risen, the barriers and shelters must be removed.
After planting, watering is necessary everyday... In the evening, after the sun is closer to sunset, more than a liter of water must be poured under each root.
During the first week, there is no need to loosen the root zone, and after a week, before watering, you need to loosen it.
Constant weeding will help to avoid excess moisture from weeds, and will allow you to immediately notice pests.
Stop daily watering two weeks after planting. It is necessary to allow the sprouts to dry completely, and let them stand completely dry for a couple of days.
Need to watch out for midges and caterpillars... When the midge first appears, sprinkle the cabbage with soapy water, and sprinkle with wood ash on top.
Dilute laundry soap in a bucket of warm water to make the water white and soapy. Spray the leaves with this solution, especially the middle - the connection of the leaves with the cuttings, and the ground around.
When caterpillars appear, it is necessary to use special treatment products. Processing should be done in calm weather, preferably in the evening, after the sun is closer to sunset.
This variety is more prone to keel disease than hybrid varieties. Therefore, it is worth planting in spring on new land, not planting seedlings where the cabbage was last year. If you find a root with a keel, do not throw it into compost, but burn it, or take it out with garbage.
With vascular bacteriosis, the yield and taste are greatly reduced. Another name for the disease is Black Rot. It manifests itself primarily in the darkening of the veins.
Wet rot appears after vascular bacteriosis, a head of cabbage, even cut off, and put in storage quickly decays.
For the prevention of bacteriosis, crop rotation must be observed, weeds must be removed in time, and the appearance of pests that spread the disease must be monitored. Damaged plants must be removed from the garden and destroyed.
Late September - early October, the variety is fully ripe.
When harvesting, do not leave long stalks on the heads of cabbage. Enough 3 cm.if the heads of cabbage are kept intact. To do this, select whole, even heads of cabbage up to 3 kg., hang in the storage by the stump, and make sure that they do not germinate or get wet.
Heads of cabbage cut down for pickling can be left in a room with a temperature of 5 - 7 degrees for a month or more, before pickling begins.
The variety has both connoisseurs, who annually choose it as the main one, and opponents. Having calculated all the pros and cons, you will definitely make the right decision for your garden. Considering that there are quite a few non-hybrid varieties left, and they are becoming weaker, the variety behaves well even in harsh conditions, and gives an excellent yield.
Belarusian cabbage is a Soviet variety. He appeared in 1937 at the Federal Scientific Center for Vegetable Growing. Due to its characteristics, it has become widespread. In 1943, it was entered into the State Register of the Russian Federation under the name Belorusskaya 455. At the end of the last century, the Belorusskaya 85 variety was obtained at the Belarusian Institute of Vegetable Growing, which differs from the original in terms of ripening.
The variety of Belarusian cabbage 455 is very old. It was received by employees of the All-Russian Research Institute of Vegetable Growing 80 years ago - in 1937. Registered in the State Register in 1943. Zoned in 10 central, northern and Siberian regions of Russia. The variety is suitable for growing in the open field on an industrial scale, as well as in personal plots.
By the term of ripening, Belarusian cabbage 455 belongs to the mid-season, from the emergence of shoots to the formation of standard forks of technical ripeness 110-130 days pass. The variety is demanding for watering, prefers a temperate climate. This cabbage grows well in moist soil with an air temperature of about 20 ° C.
In the Belarusian cabbage, according to the description of the originator, the rosette of leaves is semi-spreading, slightly raised, 70-90 cm in diameter. Unclear integumentary leaves, dark green with a gray tint, with not pronounced veins and a slightly wavy edge. The outer stump is of medium length, the inner one is short. The upper leaves of the heads of cabbage are thin, light green in color. The forks are medium in size, rounded, dense and quite juicy, whitish in section. Weight ranges from 1.3 to 4 kg. Solids in the composition - 8.4-10.7%, ascorbic acid 24-39 mg%, sugar - 4.4-6.7%.
The yield of Belarusian cabbage 455 is quite decent. Depending on the season and growing conditions, 4.7-8 kg of heads of cabbage can be harvested from 1 m 2.
The purpose of cabbage is universal. Forks are stored for an average of 3 months, that is, until December or January.
According to the description of the cabbage variety, the Belarusian vegetable crop is prone to keel. To prevent the development of the disease, crop rotation must be observed. No compost should be added to stumps: organic waste that remains from cabbage is burned. Plants with signs of vascular bacteriosis are destroyed.
The heads of diseased plants are not suitable for long storage.
To get a good harvest, the seeds of Belorusskaya cabbage are sown in mid-May. This sowing period allows you to get heads of cabbage, suitable for processing and storage. To obtain an earlier harvest of white cabbage, you can sow some of the seeds in early May.
Before sowing, the planting material is not soaked. But it will not hurt to process it in a pink solution of potassium permanganate. The seeds of the variety are sown in fertile soil, pre-filled with boiling water, to a depth of no more than 1 cm.
Seedlings appear together on the 4th or 7th day. Immediately, you need to provide the seedlings with optimal lighting, otherwise the Belarusian cabbage will stretch out, which negatively affects the yield.
You can sow cabbage seeds in a nursery or immediately in separate containers so as not to dive. In this case, 2-3 seeds are placed in each glass. When the plants grow up, leave one, the strongest seedling.
Belarusian cabbage is not particularly demanding on growing conditions and gives a rich harvest with minimal maintenance.
In accordance with the timing, sowing seeds is carried out 45-60 days before planting seedlings in the ground (late March - early April). However, it is necessary to focus on the weather conditions in the region.
You can grow cabbage seedlings in separate pots, cassettes or common boxes. Fertile soil is prepared for seedlings, which can also be purchased at a garden store.
The day before sowing, the soil is disinfected with boiling water with potassium permanganate. Such a procedure will protect the plants from damage by the black leg, which can infect the seedlings.
Additionally, you can water the soil with Gamair or Alirin-B.
Seeds from packages do not need to be processed additionally. They are sown dry. However, for quick and friendly germination, it is recommended to treat the seed with a growth stimulator Zircon or Epin, you can also use potassium humate.
Seedlings of Belarusian cabbage are planted in a permanent place in mid-June.
Cabbage needs a light, organic-rich soil, a lot of light and moisture, most importantly, without waterlogging.
The site is chosen well lit by the sun. The beds will need to be raised when the groundwater is close.
The beds are prepared in the fall. Add to each well:
Lime is added to the soil with high acidity. In addition, it is a good prophylaxis against keela.
You need to take care of the plantings in this way:
The variety of Belarusian cabbage has many characteristics that allow you to grow vegetables in any conditions, even the most difficult ones. Fortified sprouts perfectly tolerate recurrent night frosts and do not stop developing at the same time. If you grow cabbage through seedlings, as a rule, frost sprouts do not catch.
Seedlings of Belarusian cabbage
This variety, like other types and types of cabbage, requires a lot of moisture. In dry soil, Belarusian cabbage grows and develops, but the fruits are less juicy, tough, therefore, when growing this variety, it is recommended to pay special attention to watering.
In our regions, planting seedlings is a necessary step, because Belarusian cabbage is a late-ripening variety and it does not have enough warm period for full ripening. Sowing seedlings begins from April 1 to April 15, so that after 30-40 days, transplant the plant into open ground.
The basic rule when growing seedlings is a lot of color. Cabbage is a heat-loving, light-loving plant, and for the full development of sprouts, it is necessary to equip additional lighting. Due to the lack of light, the sprouts are sluggish and weak. Before planting seedlings, seeds purchased from the store do not require any preparation, because they are pre-treated with stimulants and antiseptics. If your seeds are grown in your own garden, you need to lower them in a solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes, then for 10 hours in Epin, then dry and plant in the ground.
You can take the soil for seedlings from the garden and add a little sand and peat to it. It is necessary to grow seedlings in separate containers or in a common box. Before planting, boiling water is poured into the ground in order to disinfect it from the larvae of parasites and microscopic organisms. When the ground cools down and dries up a little, it is poured ¾ into the seedling container. Before sowing, the soil is slightly moistened from above, seeds are sown at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other. If the room where the seedlings will stand is cold enough, that is, below + 20 ° C, it is necessary to additionally cover the plant with foil or glass. As soon as the sunrises appear, the shelter must be removed to ensure full air exchange. You can also grow Belarusian cabbage in peat tablets, along with which the sprouts will be transplanted into open ground to a permanent place.
The variety of Belarusian cabbage is transplanted into the ground after 35-40 days. It is important that there are already 5-7 leaves on the seedlings, no less. The peculiarity of the Belarusian variety is that you can not wait until warm weather sets in, but immediately plant it, even with recurrent frosts, which the plants survive without problems.
The site is prepared in advance according to the standard rules for preparing a bed for white cabbage. The primary digging is carried out in the fall, lime and manure are introduced to fertilize the soil and normalize the acidity level. In the spring, before transplanting seedlings, the soil must be loosened and complex fertilizer added to it. It is best to use superphosphate - a fertilizer based on potassium, magnesium, phosphorus.
For this variety, ridges are formed so that more moisture is retained at the roots. The holes are dug 20 cm deep with an interval of 50 cm from each other. Before planting a bush, a little wood ash and humus are poured onto the bottom. Water is poured into the hole, a sprout is planted and carefully trampled by the earth. Under each bush, you need to leave a small depression so that water is retained and the top layer of soil does not dry out.
Caring for Belarusian cabbage does not differ from caring for other varieties of this species. Watering is necessary as the soil dries up; for watering it is better to use settled water heated in the sun. 3 times a season, you need to make mineral fertilizing in order to maintain growth and accelerate the development of the fetus. You can use commercial nitrogen and potash fertilizers or folk remedies. A decoction of chamomile and nettle herbs, an infusion on banana peels, has proven itself well. To protect against parasites, you can use fungicides, insecticides, other disinfectants for plant protection or ash diluted in water, soap solution, garlic infusion.
Belarusian cabbage description in the video: