Most of us consider raspberries to be not only a delicious berry, but also a remedy for many diseases and painful symptoms. For colds, raspberries can help relieve sore throat and may normalize fever. Many discomfort associated with the digestive system (gastritis, heartburn, peptic ulcer, nausea and others) can also be relieved or cured by raspberries. This berry consists of a huge amount of vitamins and other nutrients.
Any patient and loving summer resident will be able to grow raspberries on his land plot. To get a good harvest, you must follow all the recommendations of experienced gardeners and not violate the rules of caring for the raspberry tree. This will provide you with an excellent harvest for the next fifteen years.
In order for the raspberry harvest in the same area to be high for many years, you need to start with the correct planting of the bushes.
Landing time is also important. Early spring (March) or late autumn (November) is the best time. It should be taken into account that the site should be well lit, but light shading should also be present.
It is ideal to plant raspberry bushes after siderates or cereals and, in no case, after tomatoes and potatoes. After such vegetable plants, the growth and development of raspberry bushes may be questionable.
On seedlings prepared for planting, you need to cut off the entire leaf mass. It is necessary to leave at least half a meter between the landing holes, and a little more than one and a half meters between the rows. Such narrow lanes have their advantages. During plant maintenance and harvesting, you will have free access to the bushes. Each seedling, in turn, receives the required amount of light and air.
The seedling holes (40 centimeters deep) must be filled with a mixture of compost and ash. A young seedling is placed in a hole and sprinkled with garden soil or humus, leaving the root collar uncovered. So new shoots will form faster.
Immediately after planting, the seedlings are watered abundantly. Each plant will need about two liters of water. The next step is mulching and pruning. Mulch will maintain the necessary soil moisture and protect against weeds. Pruning is carried out as much as possible, leaving at least three buds on each seedling.
In the next season, all branches of the first year of life are pruned (cut almost to the very ground), and only young shoots are left. Such pruning of young seedlings contributes to their better rooting and development of the root system. The development of the entire plant will depend on it, which means the quality and quantity of the crop.
It is recommended to plant any siderates between the rows of raspberry bushes (in autumn). In early spring, it will be necessary to mow all the crops that have appeared and use them as a mulching layer throughout the entire raspberry tree.
Raspberries love to grow in porous, lightweight and moist areas of land. Not every farmer can provide his raspberry with such soil. But mulching will help solve all the problems. This layer will become not only a protection for the beds, but also food for plants.
You can use old newspapers as a first layer. Newspapers line the entire surface of the earth between the raspberry bushes. Then all the available organic waste is poured on top - grass, straw, small branches of trees and bushes, wood waste (sawdust or shavings), food waste.
In order for the raspberries to be large every season, it is necessary to regularly prune the bushes. At the end of the summer cottage season, you need to cut off all the branches that have bred to the soil level. Do not forget to get rid of young growth. On each raspberry seedling, after pruning, there should be two to five of the strongest and strongest shoots.
To prevent the long raspberry branches from bending under the weight of the berries, additional supports can be made. These can be wooden posts along the edges of the beds, which are connected with wires along all the plants. This design will provide good access to the bushes when caring for them. The stems will not tilt, it will be possible to irrigate, fertilize and renew mulching without any problems.
In the first years of life, when the plants are gaining strength and their formation continues, additional feeding in the form of organic fertilizers will be required. The mulching layer gives its positive results, but this is not enough for young bushes.
In the spring, for active growth and development, you can add one of the options for feeding:
For young shoots, it is recommended to spray with a solution with effective microorganisms. This will not only be an excellent fertilizer, but also a prophylaxis against infectious and fungal diseases.
In the autumn, it is advisable to feed raspberries with a complex fertilizer. To prepare it, you will need a large container (wooden or metal barrel), which is filled with various organics (by about 60-70 percent): fresh grass or vegetable tops, wood ash (1.5 cups), hay or straw, chicken droppings, one and a half glasses sugar (or jam), a small piece of chalk and pour warm water to the brim.
The fermentation process takes place within 10 days. To apply top dressing, you need to dilute 0.5 liters of the finished infusion with 10 liters of water. Each raspberry bush will need 3 liters of this fertilizer.
How to grow large and SWEET raspberries
Growing raspberries is a common activity for many gardeners. This is a perennial plant, reaching a height of two or more meters, for planting in a personal plot, not the best plots in shaded areas are taken away. That's just how to grow raspberries depends on its yield, taste and quality.
Planting, caring for and caring for the development of this interesting culture is almost no different from the garden manipulations that are required for red and yellow raspberries. The appearance of Cumberland is very similar to the blackberry, only its berries are somewhat smaller and are easily removed from the stalk, although they do not crumble from the bushes and are well stored.
The high frost resistance of Cumberland is surprising, since even in very harsh and snowless winters, the bushes do without special shelters. Despite the fact that the fruits of black raspberries are very sweet, birds do not encroach on planting, and traditional pests bypass this variety of raspberries.
It should be noted that there are certain difficulties in caring for such a culture as the Cumberland black raspberry. Planting and leaving is sometimes a nuisance in the form of scratches and abrasions due to the many sharp thorns covering the stems. Therefore, protective measures must be observed.
Yes, our summer residents can do everything, and nothing will lead them astray. Unless the need for pedantry and patience will be greatly perplexed. Admit it: following the same procedure is so boring ... Is there anything more dreary than boring preparatory work? There is. Empty country bins.
But this is, so to speak, a lyrical introduction (in the country, after all, without a beautiful word said on time, it is also impossible), but I want to seriously talk about raspberries. I know that many consider strawberries to be the queen of the garden, and for me and my granddaughter this berry is beyond any competition. A plot without raspberries is a pitiful sight. And again, many people think that it can be grown carelessly. So what?
It grows in the forest by itself, without any care, and gives delicious berries. And therefore, digging in the garden, they remember about raspberries last: they managed to feed and shelter - well, they did not have time - it will do just that.
I strictly follow a few simple rules that I made for myself.
Growing raspberries - rule one
My raspberries are placed only in sunny places, because even in partial shade it grows and bears fruit reluctantly, and the berries in such conditions do not ripen very sweet.
I attach it, protecting it from the westerly and northerly winds: it is either a fence (I have it dense, made of well-fitted boards), or buildings.
I plant it in two ways: in two rows, according to the scheme 70 × 1.5 m, and in free-standing bushes in free corners of the garden.
As for the first option, I am convinced that with more frequent planting, the yield decreases and raspberries get sick more often, since too many pests multiply in the bushes. But the second method has no drawbacks at all: no one bothers the raspberry and it does not bother anyone! And I can safely walk around her, look after and harvest. In both cases, it grows and bears fruit perfectly. I always mulch the bushes tightly with grass (there is no way to get sawdust), and therefore it takes me a little time to water and weed.
Growing raspberries - the second rule
I am mercilessly destroying the growth! If this is not done (or not cut too carefully), numerous weak shoots will take away strength from the bush, and this will result in loss of yield, besides, the fruits will begin to shrink.
But the main thing is that because of this overgrowth, the bushes leave weakened in the winter, and this already threatens the death of the plantings.
I cut the shoots with a shovel to a depth of 5-8 cm (the best tool in this sense). I also remove old branches that have borne fruit.
Growing raspberries - rule three
Be sure to form bushes. And whether I did it right, I judge by the following indicators. If a 3-year-old bush has 7-8 replacement shoots and grows to a height above 1.5 m (well, let it be slightly lower), then it is developing normally. Sometimes I leave one or two backup shoots just in case.
Growing raspberries - rule four
I abundantly process plants with herbal infusions and decoctions (tansy, wormwood, garlic, onion husks). Better to overdo it a bit than bite your elbows later. Not often, but it happens that you have to use chemical preparations, but this is already in the most extreme cases.
Growing raspberries - rule five
Actually, this rule should have been put at the very beginning. And we will talk about preparation plants for winter. I try to bend the varieties that tolerate frost worse to the ground while they are still green and flexible. With the onset of cold weather, at the first opportunity, I pour more snow on the raspberries (here and again the shovel helps me, albeit another one).
I don't have a lot of varieties, but they all suit me, especially since they have different ripening periods, which is why I feast on berries until the very frost.
Repaired varieties: Lazarevskaya, Cap of Monomakh, Orange miracle, Golden domes.
Common varieties: Daughter of Vislukha (in terms of the size of the fruits and the tenderness of their taste, it is still necessary to look for competitors), Brigantine, Zhuravushka, Scarlet Sail, Kuzmin's News.
And I would also like to talk about the fight against the shoot gall midge. I have heard more than once that damaged shoots should be cut and burned in the fall. I think that autumn is not a very good time for such work. According to my observations, it is best to do this in the second half of the summer. Why? But because if you give the gall midge a head start before autumn, it will have time to go through the full development cycle, mature, go to winter in the ground, and the next year it will multiply in even greater numbers.
I think at the end of the season we need to pay more attention to making the raspberries go clean and healthy under the snow. This means that it is necessary to prevent diseases, carry out prophylaxis and take care of creating comfortable wintering conditions. In short, there is something to do, but time at this time, on the contrary, is already running out. There is no time to chill, otherwise dreams of delicious berries will remain so dreams.
Perhaps someone else has a different perspective on how to handle raspberries. Well, here and more actively share your experience, dear summer residents - with the world on a string, and we will get abundance.
© Author: L.A. Telnova Rybinsk, Yaroslavl region
Good watering can increase the productivity of bushes by 1.5-2 times. Raspberries love moisture, but they do not like moisture to stand, as in a swamp.
Top dressing with organic or complex fertilizers. In the fall, it is advisable to bring rotted manure or bird droppings. After flowering and during the ripening of berries - ash. In the spring, raspberries need nitrogen. Excess fertilizer is also dangerous, you can destroy the plant.
It is necessary to rid the raspberries from unnecessary shoots. They need to be cut with pruning shears so that they do not take away nutrients from the main plant.
During the summer, add mulch regularly, do not loosen the ground around so as not to damage the roots.
Tie the stems of the plant on trellises so that they do not fall to the ground.
Protect against diseases and pests, without the use of chemicals. A solution of ash and laundry soap will help against fungal diseases. From aphids and other insects - a decoction or infusion of onion peel.
Ripe berries should be picked every 2-3 days, this stimulates flowering and the formation of new berries.
After harvesting, the spent branches must be removed so that they do not interfere with the development of young shoots.
By adhering to these simple rules, you can get a significant harvest of raspberries every year - a fragrant, juicy and very tasty berry.
I share with you the little tricks of gardeners and gardeners))
And it was like this. Back in 1972, I became a summer resident, I put my swampy area in order - I drained and broke the beds. My neighbors didn’t sit idle either. One of them, Uncle Kolya, had raspberries growing behind the house. Fruiting a little, but it was a pity to look at her: the stems are thin, low. And then somehow Uncle Kolya and I were sitting, talking about gardening matters, and I took it and blurt out: “Give me two or three bushes of your raspberry-goner, it still won't be bent for an hour anyway, but I want a little experiment with it. " “Wait,” Kolya replies, “I need to consult my wife. You know, you can't beg for snow from Marusya in winter, but here give him raspberries! " But, be that as it may, he persuaded the hostess. She even pointed out to me those stalks that could be taken away.
No sooner said than done. The raspberries were already blooming, but somehow timidly and timidly. And I had a friend Leshka Stepanov, his brother lived in the village, kept cattle - an economic man, in a word. Well, I'm hinting to Leschke: “Isn't it possible to get hold of manure from your brother? He doesn’t care that much of it, and I’ll help unload the yard at the same time. ” Leshka says, “I’ll just go to him for milk today in a“ macaque ”(this motorcycle“ Minsk ”was then popularly called by the people, if anyone remembers), so let's take a couple with me and wave it off.” Of course, I gladly agreed.
Well, we came to his brother. I looked around. The yard is solid, fenced, everything is clean and tidy, and behind the barn the stacks of cow dung are neatly stacked. My eyes ran up. In general, word for word, we agreed on 10 bags. My joy knew no bounds!
The next day I went to work, made an agreement with a truck driver I knew, and in the evening we rushed to the village with him. The owner was just at home, gave two pitchforks, and the driver and I got down to work. Almost a full body was thrown over. I wanted to give the owner a fifty-kopeck piece, but he didn’t take it: “I’ll still be,” he says, “to make money on Mr.. Moreover, to my brother you are not the last person. " Then I gave the driver a fifty-kopeck piece - after all, I helped to load and unload. And Uncle Kolya's wife came running to see what kind of manure I had brought. She clinked her tongue, shook her head, saying, I thought it was a horse, but this one is nonsense. Was it worth getting dirty? So she left.Oh, okay.
And I went home, refreshed myself, changed clothes, put on rubber boots and went to fight with manure. He brought five buckets under the raspberries, surrounded the stems presented to me and diligently trampled on this good. And so five times. It turned out a layer of a little more than 30 cm, I poured five more buckets of water on it. Noticing my "dancing", my uncle Kolya and his wife came to see my eccentricities. Of course, they laughed at me and twisted my finger at my temple. And you think, doubts did not take me.
And then I receive an order to go on a business trip. I was absent for almost 20 days, but returned - first of all I ran to look at the pets. And there - a miracle! The raspberries came to life, the dark green leaves were released, the berry clusters began to fill. And most importantly, young stems appeared from under the manure, but they were so healthy!
Yes, dear summer residents, my efforts were not in vain, and these three stalks became remontant - until the very frost I picked ripe berries, even some of them, which did not have time to ripen, and went under the snow.
Well, the young shoots grew under 1 m 40 cm, then I did not let her climb up: I cut them off, and she began to bush. And under the snow she left like "Christmas trees". I wondered what would happen in the spring?
And in the new season, as soon as the snow melted, my raspberries came to life in an instant. And I already have a real plantation. Of course, I cut off the tips of the “Christmas trees” again in April. There are no motes under the bushes, and the stems are thick with a finger. There were even more berries that year, larger and sweeter than last summer. This is how I wiped my nose at all the skeptics, and most importantly, for Aunt Marusya. And she really pestered me: they say, she ruined so much manure, spent so much effort, spoiled all the air in the area with her fertilizer ...
So what do I want to say in the end? No, my dears, human labor always pays off. And if you are in doubt about success, it is better not to get down to business at all. As popular wisdom says, I'm not sure - don't overtake.
And today I will definitely conduct another experiment, because now I have a whole KamAZ truck of pure cow dung!
Yes, half of my pension was spent on it, but what to do? I have the earth, for now too, the raspberries are waiting for me to put my hands on it. I'll give her plenty of meat. Yes, everything in our dacha and vegetable garden business requires sacrifice, and most importantly, patience, work to a sweat and the desire to believe in yourself, in the right advice.
Yes, and Mother Earth, our nurse, loves to be respected, not lazy to take care of her, then the return will be in full.
In conclusion, I also want to talk a little about my garden eccentricities. For example, to the surprise of his neighbors, he started a Manchu nut (see photo). He grew nine seedlings from the nuts: he kept one (now he is five years old), and gave eight to the school (he even helped plant them).
I also have four chestnuts and three firs (I brought them from Bashkiria, they easily started, grow, delight the eye with their green splendor). I hope to see the first harvest of grafted pears, which is now in its third year. Last season I tried my own yellow plum for the first time: even though there were three fruits in total, the tastier they seemed.
And with the grafted apple tree that year I collected a 5-liter bucket of apples. I "built" this small tree, I regularly prune the crown. And that is, I have one old apple tree, which bears fruit so that if you shake it, it will fill up with apples. But you just can't shake, the fruits must be removed carefully so as not to damage them. And how to do this if the tree is five meters high, or even more?
Of course, there are many ways, but everyone has the same drawback: not all the fruits can be removed, you can grab one (even if with the help of some clever fruit picker), swing a branch, and the neighboring one - no earth.
And this is how I got out of the situation. I put up a high ladder, and at the bottom, close to it on both sides, I drive two crowbars into the ground up to half their length and tie it to them. It turns out that the ladder is now securely fixed. Then I put the bag on my shoulder and climb up. That's all the beauty in front of my eyes, I carefully pick one apple at a time and put it in my bag for 5-10 minutes. - and the top of the head is clean. I climb down, unload, and up again, but lower.
And so on three or four times, then I will rearrange the ladder, and my harvest is already in baskets or boxes, and on the ground - no gu-ry. The proverb says that the need for invention is cunning. It may seem to someone that this method is too laborious, but it is effective. And it's a pleasure to pick ripe, poured apples with your own hands. How does it compare? There was a case, a neighbor saw me on an apple tree, ran to my wife and shouted: “Alya, there is some fool who climbed onto the top of the apple tree! The staircase will go, it will fall! " And my mistress replies: "No, it is my Mikhail who harvests the harvest, he has his own proven method."
© Author: Mikhail GRIGORCHAK Vladimir region.
In late autumn (late September - early October), I scatter superphosphate directly over the mulch and turn on the sprinklers for irrigation, moreover, if the autumn is dry, I arrange long and frequent watering, so
raspberries leave well prepared in winter. I never bend it down for the winter! I put the mulch until the very frost, in the spring I take off the old mulch (it goes either into compost or on heaps for growing zucchini), and put a new one under the bushes.
And for this all season raspberries thank our family with gorgeous harvests - enough for food, and for freezing, and for jam.
As for reproduction, I used to propagate with rhizomes, but now I have adapted to plant raspberries with "nettles" - young shoots just starting to grow from adult bushes. Fast, convenient, and most importantly, one hundred percent survival rate.
Well, it seems that I have not forgotten anything, perhaps someone will adopt a method of growing raspberries without unnecessary digging of row spacings.
And for the readers of the dacha, I have one question: did anyone grow the remontant raspberry Caramel? What are your impressions?
This concludes my letter, to a large group of summer residents - good seasons and excellent harvests!
In spring, all stems affected by frost should be cut off from raspberries to a healthy kidney, and also injured, diseased and underdeveloped branches should be cut out. If you follow the rules of agricultural technology for this culture, then 10-15 shoots should fall on 1 running meter of the plot. In this regard, all shoots should be cut out on the bush, leaving only those that started growing first, they must be shortened by 15–20 centimeters. As a result of such thinning pruning, the quality of the fruit will improve, as well as they will be larger. Such pruning can be carried out if desired in the autumn, but still, with the onset of spring, all the stems injured and frost-damaged by the bushes will need to be cut out from the bushes. And according to I.V. Kazakov, cut bushes in spring will give a richer harvest.
In the fall, after harvesting, you need to remove all two-year-old stems, since in the next season they will not bloom and bear fruit. Of course, they can be cut out in spring, but in this case they will take away the nutrients from the plant that are so necessary for it in winter. All stems that have borne fruit in the current season should be cut. If the raspberries you grow are not remontant, then you can prune them earlier, and you don't have to wait for late autumn. Experts recommend carrying out a similar procedure immediately after the entire crop from the bushes has been harvested, in this case all the forces of the raspberry will be directed to the growth and development of young shoots, namely, they will bear fruit in the next season. If remontant varieties are grown, then they should be cut off at the end of the second fruiting. It is recommended to destroy all cut stems, as pathogenic microorganisms and various pests can settle on them.