Sowing parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.) is a biennial cultivated plant of the celery family (Apiaceae). Parsnip belongs to the number of plants known to man for a long time. It got its name from the Latin - "food, food".
Parsnips are still found in the wild; it grows on vacant lots, open slopes, pastures, along roads throughout the European part of Russia, in the south of the Urals, in Western Siberia, Altai Territory, in the Caucasus, in Western Europe, and as an imported plant in America, Australia, and New Zealand. The parsnip differs from its wild relative, from which it was obtained by centuries of selection, by its thick and sweet root.
In culture, parsnip has been known for a long time, and before the appearance of potatoes, along with turnips, it was among the main food products in winter throughout the European continent. This plant was considered a delicious dish in ancient Rome, and was credited with medicinal properties. In those days, it was widespread. Its fruits were found in pile structures in Bern (Switzerland).
This plant was first described by Karl Linnaeus in 1753. They say that the parsnip at one time was very offended by ... Christopher Columbus. With the advent of potatoes, this magnificent vegetable was gradually forgotten, but in vain! Now parsnips are cultivated in many countries, including Russia. We probably have it in XV ?? century and became known to Russian gourmets. In some regions of our country, parsnip is a common seasoning for many dishes, while in other regions it is not known at all. It is more widely known in the south, especially in the Caucasus.
Root vegetables have a sweetish taste and pleasant aroma. They contain the largest amount of dry matter among the plants of the Umbrella family (from 17 to 33%), in the leaves it contains 13–18%. The sugar content is 8-9%. In terms of the content of easily digestible sugars (2.3–10.6%), parsnip takes one of the first places among root crops. The main constituent of carbohydrates in parsnip roots are sucrose, fructose, glucose. In addition, there are mannose, galactose, arabinose, xylose, rhamnose, as well as starch and fiber. Monosaccharides prevail in parsnip leaves, and sucrose in root crops.
Protein content in root crops - 1.1–2.6%; in the leaves - 1.6–3.4%. There are pectin substances.
During a chemical study, it was found that essential oil is contained in all parts of the plant; most of it is in dry fruits - 1.5-3.6%; in root vegetables - from 70 to 350 mg per 100 g of fresh weight. The essential oil contains esters of heptyl and hexyl acids and octyl butyl ester of butyric acid, which has a pleasant smell. The composition of the fatty oil found in the fruits includes glycerols of butyric, heptylic and caproic acids, as well as esters of acetic acid.
Roots contain uronic acids. Of the oxidative enzymes, parsnip contains peroxidase, phenolase, and ascorbate oxidase. Furocoumarins are found in parsnip seeds, which makes them a valuable raw material for the manufacture of medicines.
Parsnips are a rich source of vitamins. Its roots contain: vitamin C (5-28 mg per 100 g), as well as vitamins: B1 (1.2-1.9 mg per 100 g), B2 (0.01-0.1 mg per 100 g), PP, carotene (0.03 mg per 100 g). The presence of vitamins in the leaves is tens, even hundreds of times more and amounts to: vitamin C 20–109 mg per 100 g; carotene 2.4–12.2 mg per 100 g; vitamin B1 - 1.14 mg per 100 g and vitamin B2 - 0.91 mg per 100 g. Dehydroascorbic acid was found in the juice of root crops.
The content of ash elements in parsnip roots is 0.7-1.5%, in leaves 2.3-3%. The composition of minerals in parsnip ash is dominated by potassium, there are also mineral salts of calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper, etc.
Parsnip preparations have antispasmodic, diuretic, analgesic and photosensitizing effects, stimulate appetite.
Parsnip is a valuable forage crop for animals and poultry. This herb significantly improves the quality of milk and butter. Parsnip is a good honey plant.
Parsnips are propagated by seeds. Its root system penetrates to a depth of 2–2.5 m and a width of 1–1.5 m. In the first year of life, a small root crop is formed, in the second year of life - a stem, inflorescence and seeds. The root vegetable is spherical or elongated with an uneven surface, coarse texture, yellowish-brown outside, the flesh of the root vegetable is grayish-white. Basal leaves - long-petiolate, pinnately dissected, shiny from above, from below - soft-wavy, oblong-ovoid, obtuse, sparsely toothed along the edges; stem - sessile. The stem is straight, glabrous, ribbed-furrowed, branched at the top, 80–120 cm high. The inflorescence is a complex umbel with a large number of small yellow flowers. Parsnips are pollinated crosswise with the help of insects. The fruit is a two-seed, which, when ripe, splits into two lobes of a flat-oval shape, light brown or light brown in color. The mass of 1000 seeds is 2–5 g. The seeds remain viable for no more than 2–3 years.
Among other root crops, it is considered the most cold-resistant and frost-resistant plant. Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of + 5 ... + 6 ° C. Seedlings appear on the 15-20th day and tolerate frosts down to -3 ... -5 ° С. Adult plants can withstand temperatures down to -7 ... -8 ° C. The best growth of parsnips is observed at a temperature of + 15 ... + 20 ° С. In conditions of sufficient moisture, they grow well at higher temperatures. The parsnip plant overwinters well in the middle lane in the soil, both in the form of fully formed root crops of spring sowing, and younger ones, and in the spring they are dug up for fresh use. The parsnip tops are not preserved after wintering. He grows young leaves.
Parsnip is a light-loving plant. It makes a particularly great demand for light at the beginning of its development. Parsnips drastically reduce the yield if they are late with weeding. This is a long day plant.
Parsnip is a plant that requires moisture in the soil. For swelling, water is needed 1.6–2.2 times more than the weight of air-dried seeds. The powerful root system of parsnips allows it to utilize moisture from the lower soil layers and better withstand soil drought. However, parsnips yield high yields with sufficient soil moisture and uniform soil moisture throughout the growing season. The plant does not tolerate excessive soil moisture and the proximity of groundwater.
Parsnips grow on soils of various textures, but best of all - on loamy and sandy loam, as well as on peat bogs. It should not be sown on too light or too heavy soils. For successful cultivation, loose, structural, moist, but not waterlogged soils with a deep humus horizon are required. The optimum pH for parsnips is 6–8. Soils with high acidity are unsuitable for it, since they inhibit plant growth.
Parsnips are responsive to the application of organic and mineral fertilizers. For dining purposes, it uses root crops, which must be of good quality, therefore, it should be sown no earlier than in the second year after the introduction of fresh manure.
The use of trace elements (boron and manganese) causes him to intensify biochemical processes in plants. They contribute to an increase in the weight of parsnip leaves and by 40% - the average weight of root crops, as well as increase the content of dry matter, sugars, ascorbic acid and carotene in them.
Parsnips should be placed next to crops that leave behind a weed-free area. Parsnips are grown after vegetable crops, with the exception of representatives of the Celery family. The best predecessors for him are potatoes, cabbage, cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkin, under which organic fertilizers were applied.
Soil cultivation begins with the autumn digging to a depth of 25–30 cm, since with finer cultivation the roots branch out. In the spring, they harrow the soil and loosen it deeply.
It is useful to add peat compost or humus from organic fertilizers for parsnips at the rate of 4–5 kg per 1 m2. Mineral fertilizers are applied at the rate of 15–20 g of ammonium nitrate, 20–25 g of potassium chloride and 30–40 g of superphosphate per square meter, and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers in the amount of 2/3 of the required rate are applied during the autumn filling of the soil. Nitrogen and the rest of the phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied in the spring for deep loosening. When using combined mineral fertilizers (30-50 g per 1 m?), Filling the soil with nutrients is transferred to the spring.
The following parsnip varieties are zoned: Round and Heart - early ripening, with a conical-convex shape of the root crop, grayish-white outer color and white pulp; varieties Best of all and White stork - with long, conical roots, more cold-resistant and containing more dry matter. Varieties with a rounded root crop are less productive than those with a conical one, but they are more early ripening and suitable for growing on soils with a small arable layer, since the length of the root crop is 10-15 cm on average.
Parsnip seeds, although larger than carrots and parsley, also sprout slowly. To accelerate germination during the spring sowing period, they are soaked in warm water for 2-3 days. The water is changed several times. You can hang the seeds in a bag from a water tap and use a weak stream of warm (but not hot!) Water. Essential oils that inhibit germination are washed out faster. Before sowing, the seeds are dried to a state of flowability. In the conditions of a home garden, they can not be dried, but sown wet, having previously been mixed with dry sand or soil. When sowing with wet seeds, make sure that the soil is sufficiently moist. Water it if necessary. Otherwise, dry soil will take away moisture from the seeds, and they may die. The ending follows
Valentina Perezhogina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
High yield of honeysuckle can be provided only by highly productive varieties. It is the variety that largely decides the success of the business. Having planted a plant accidentally acquired on the market, perhaps even a seedling from a neighboring plot, you will not achieve the results in the future that you could get from a good variety with high potential using any agricultural technology.
Which varieties you choose to give preference will depend on your taste preferences and how you are going to use the crop. If mainly for fresh consumption, then choose fruitful varieties with a dessert taste, different ripening periods, for example, Amazon, Dlinnoplodnaya, Maria, Elizaveta, Zarechnaya and so on.
Since honeysuckle berries are a perishable product (even in the refrigerator they are stored no more than two to three days), then with a significant harvest, most of it will most likely go for processing or freezing. For this purpose, varieties with a slight sourness or bitterness are better suited, for example, Lenita, Gerda, Blue Spindle, and so on. Because of the bitterness present, many people like processed products from them more. Although this is a matter of taste, of course, there can be no consensus here.
Here I want to note that honeysuckle is a very plastic culture, and therefore it is possible on the site. to successfully grow not only zoned, local varieties, but also varieties bred in other regions, with different soil and climatic conditions. Such varieties can be superior in a number of characteristics to local ones.
Marina Alekseevna, Belgorod region.
Cultivated tomato "Baron" under a greenhouse shelter, as it was written on a packet of seeds. Plants are well leafy, low, fruits set and ripen quickly. All tomatoes are practically the same size, their appearance cannot but attract attention. The taste is pleasant, the pulp is fleshy and sugar. Basically, all fruits succumbed to whole-fruit conservation. During the entire growing season, the plant did not hurt. The only thing that a bear got into the greenhouse had to buy the drug "Medvetox" and scatter it around the entire perimeter of the plantings in order to protect the plants.
Nikolai Leonidovich, Kuban.
I planted the Baron tomato outdoors. We managed to collect 5-6 kilograms of fruit from one bush. The variety is unpretentious to care for. I watered the plants on time, fertilized them several times. I sprayed tomatoes from the Colorado potato beetle, which most likely flew over with a row of growing potatoes. The fruits are tasty, juicy. All summer my wife was preparing tomato juice, and also closed it for the winter. You can also eat them fresh. I recommend the tomato to all gardeners.
Today there is a wide variety of parsnip varieties. All of them can be found in specialized stores. You should not buy at your own risk from grandmothers in the market, as you cannot know exactly what type of parsnip you are buying. The shape of the root crop is usually elongated, more like carrots, but there are also varieties with a round shape, somewhat reminiscent of black radish. Parsnips were previously grown in every home and could not imagine life without this useful plant. It saved from fatigue, lack of vitamins, diseases of the cardiovascular system and intestines.
Parsnip root vegetable
How to plant a root crop in your summer cottage? First, we note that this is a biennial plant. The first year the root grows, and in the second, if the root is not dug up or planted again, the tops will grow and give seeds. Therefore, having decided to grow parsnips every year, you can always be with your own planting material. Parsnip seeds are quite large and sit easily, but there can be problems with germination. If you do not follow the conditions for planting seeds, they may not sprout.
For the normal development of the plant, some rules must be observed:
Important! The only caveat is that parsnip seeds germinate rather slowly - up to 20 days, so don't be alarmed if you don't see the shoots for a long time. It often happens that the first seeds do not germinate at all, either because of marriage or inappropriate conditions. In this case, new ones are sown, which are soaked in warm water for three days before open ground, for sprouts to appear.
Parsnip seeds, photo
If there is a cellar, then at the end of September, dig up the roots with a pitchfork, cut the tops, dry them, put them in moistened sand and lower them into the cellar. Storage at a temperature of 0-1 ° C.
If there is nowhere to store parsnips in winter, then it will wonderfully overwinter in a garden bed without shelter, but having covered 5-6 cm of soil with a layer of earth.
In early spring, you can dig up roots and use them for their intended purpose, the main thing is not to be late with the digging.When the rosette of leaves is 10 cm or more long, it is better not to touch the plant and already leave it for the seed reproduction, the root crop coarsens, and all the plant's strength is already spent on the development of seeds.
For the winter, dig up the roots, wash thoroughly with running cold water, cut into rings, and lay out on white paper to dry. When the parsnips are dry, place in the oven to warm up, let cool, put in a glass jar and cover with a lid so that no bugs can get there.
For freezing, the parsnips are peeled and cut into pieces. Fold in a plastic bag in 2 layers and release the air. Tied up and sent to the freezer.
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Sowing parsnip (Pastinaca Savita) or "white borscht" has been known to mankind many centuries ago. Scientists have proven that in ancient Rome, as early as the 1st century BC, this useful root vegetable was used. The popularity of parsnip has increased every century, thanks not only to its use in cooking as a main dish, but also to its medicinal properties, which have a positive effect on the development of medicine.
The usefulness of parsnips has been proven as a scientific fact, because its juice and essential oil are used not only by healers in villages, but also as part of medicines for traditional medicine. Cosmetology and dermatology cannot imagine many preparations without the main substance - parsnip. That is why most people began to be interested not only in the characteristics of this plant, but also in the way of growing it at home.